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西藏新型城镇化: 现状、特征与路径

发布日期: 2015-12-21    作者:史云峰   来源:AG真人_平台首页 1799

[关键词]新型城镇化;发展现状;内涵特征;西藏

[摘  要]推进新型城镇化是AG真人国全面建成小康社会、加快推进社会主义现代化的必由之路,已经成为国家重要的发展战略和举措。作为边疆民族地区,西藏当前城镇化率仅为25.8%,低于全国平均水平近30个百分点、低于西部地区约20个百分点。西藏的城镇化存在着许多显著特点和特殊性,其表现为西藏在很大程度上还是传统的农牧社会,地广人稀,生态环境脆弱,城镇发育能力弱,城镇经济欠发达,拉动人口就业并向城镇聚集的能力非常有限。同时,城镇化、人口发展以及与资源、环境的协调发展等问题聚集叠加,对西藏城镇化工作提出了更加严峻的挑战。因此,西藏新型城镇化的内涵也具有自己的新意和特征,其发展路径体现在发展目标、动力机制、产业支撑、空间布局、发展核心、发展模式等各个方面。

dangdeshibadazhichu,yao“jianchizouzhongguotesedexinxingchengzhenhuadaolu”。2013nian12yue,zhonggongzhongyangzaibeijingzhaokaizhongyangchengzhenhuagongzuohuiyi,duixinshiqituijinchengzhenhuagongzuozuolejutibushu,bingzhidingle《guojiaxinxingchengzhenhuaguihua》。shibajiesanzhongquanhuidejuedingzhichu,yao“tuijinyirenweihexindechengzhenhua”,“wanshanchengzhenhuajiankangfazhantizhijizhi”。zuoweituijinxinxingchengzhenhuazuizhongyaodepeitaogaigecuoshi,guowuyuanyu2014nian7yueyinfa《guowuyuanguanyujinyibutuijinhujizhidugaigedeyijian》,yaoqiu“heliyindaonongyerenkouyouxuxiangchengzhenzhuanyi”,“cujinyounenglizaichengzhenwendingjiuyeheshenghuodechangzhurenkouyouxushixianshiminhua”。zhongzhongcuoshiyijingbiaoming,tuijinxinxingchengzhenhuashiweilaiyiduanshijianagzhenrenguoquanmianjianchengxiaokangshehui、jiakuaituijinshehuizhuyixiandaihuadebiyouzhilu,yijingchengweiguojiazhongyaodefazhanzhanlvehejucuo。duiyuxizangzheiyangdebianjiangminzudiqueryan,xinxingchengzhenhuagengshishixianrenkouyouxuzhuanyijiuye、shidumijishengchanyaosu、tuijinjibengonggongagzhenrenjundenghuahetongchouchengxiangfazhan、shixianjingjishehuifazhanhezhangzhijiuandezhongyaotujing。

yi、chengzhenhuayuxizangchengzhenhuadezongtifenxi

AG真人chengzhenhuashirenleishehuifazhandaoyidinglishijieduandechanwu。tebieshijinruxiandaishehuiyihou,chengzhenhuayugongyehuayiqi,chengweishijiefazhandezhuyaoguijihezhongyaodelishitezheng。dangqian,quanshijie50%yishangderenkoushenghuozaichengshi,erqiehaizaijixuzengzhang;fadaguojiahediqubirumeiguoheoumeng,80%yishangderenkoushenghuozaichengshi,yijingjibenwanchenglechengzhenhuajincheng。agzhenrenguochengzhenhuadejinchengshiconggaigekaifanghoukaishifalijiasude,1978niandao2014nian,zhongguodechengzhenhualvcong18%tigaodao54.77%,nianjunzengzhanglvdadao1%,chengshirenkoudadao7.5yiren。congshujushangkan,zhong

AG真人guochengzhenhuaagzhenrendechengguoshixirende,danshizhangqiyilai“gaosudu、zhongkuozhang、dizhiliang”decheng

AG真人zhenhuafazhanmoshidailailezhongduomaodunhewenti,birumangmukuozhang、ziyuanlangfei、huanjingpohuaidengdeng。yinci,zaiweilai20nianzuoyoudeshijian,zhongguodechengzhenhuajiangjinrudaoyitigaozhiliangweihexinheguanjiandekuaisufazhanshiqi。

AG真人zuoweibianjiangminzudiqu,xizangdiguangrenxi,shengtaihuanjingcuiruo,jingjishehuifazhanhaibijiaozhihou。congchengzhenhuazhengtishuipinglaikan,xizangchengzhenhuashuipingdi,zaiquanguochuyumowei。2014nianxizangchengzhenhualvjinwei25.8%,yuandiyuquanguo54.77%depingjunshuiping,bujinyudongbuyanhaifadashengquxiangjushenyuan,yuchengzhenhuashuipingjiaodidexibushengquxiangbiyecunzaijiaodachaju,juyuquanguomowei。congchengzhenhuafazhanjieduanlaikan,xizangchengzhenhuahaichuyuhuanmandeqibujieduan。biru,anagzhenrenguoxianxingdeyichengqufeinongyerenkouweibiaozhunlaihuafenchengshidengji,xizangdechengzhenjunweixiaochengzhen,chulechengzhenshuliangshao、guimoxiaowai,chengzhendejingjishiliruo、jichusheshiluohou、zhinengdanyi、neishengdonglidi、xiyinliyufushenengliyouxian,chengzhenfazhanmianlinzhezhuduokunjing,zheixiedouzheshechuxizangchengzhenfazhanluohoudetedian,xizangzaihendachengdushanghaishichuantongdenongmushehui,chengzhenfayunengliruo,chengzhenjingjiqianfada,ladongrenkoujiuyebingxiangchengzhenjujidenenglifeichangyouxian。congchengzhenhuafazhanshencengcilaikan,xizangchengzhenhuamianlingengjiayanjundetiaozhan。dangqian,xizangrenkouguimo、jiegou、suzhi、fenbudengyaosuzhijianyuchengzhenhuajinchengzhonggegeyaosudezuhe、juji、xietongheyouhuachengxianchuhudong、yilaishenzhigengjiafuzadejumian,chengzhenhua、renkoufazhanyijiyuziyuan、huanjingdexiediaofazhandengwentijujidiejia,duichengzhenhuagongzuotichulegengjiayanjundetiaozhan。

AG真人2014nian5yue,xizangzizhiqufazhanzixunweiyuanhuizaibeijingzhaokailexizangxinxingchengzhenhuaguihuazhuantizixunlunzhenghui,duixizangxinxingchengzhenhuajinxingkexuezixun、chongfenlunzhengheshenzhongjuece;7yue,zizhiqurenminzhengfuzhaokaichangwuhuiyi,tongguo《xizangzizhiquxinxingchengzhenhuaguihua(2014—2020)》;8yue,zizhiqudangweizhaokaichangweihuiyi,yanjiubushuquanquchengzhenhuagongzuo;2015nian1yue,zizhiqudangwei、zhengfuzhaokaiquanqutuijinxinxingchengzhenhuagongzuohuiyi,tichulizhengdao2020nianquanquchengzhenhuashuipingxianzhutigao,chengzhenkongjianbujumingxianyouhua,chengzhenchanyezhichengbuduanqianghua,chengzhenzhutigongnengjinyibuzengqiang,chengzhenfazhanmoshikexueheli,chengzhenhuatizhijizhiriquwanshan,shengtaihuanjinggengjialianghao。yinci,ruhejiehexizangshiji,quanmianzhunquediguancheluoshizhongyangjingshen,jianchizouyouzhongguotese、xizangtediandexinxingchengzhenhuadaolu,shidangqianjuyouxianshixinghejinpoxingdeyixiangzhongdaketi。

er、xizangchengzhenhuayugongyehuadeguanxihechengzhenhuatezheng

AG真人chengzhenhuayugongyehuashiyiduiluanshengxiongdi,chengzhenshigongyedezhuyaozaiti,gongyeshichengzhendezhuyaotuidongli。meiguochengshixuezhenuosemuduishijiegeguochengzhenhuajinxingyanjiu,zongjiechuchengzhenhuafazhanchengxiansxingquxian,jiangqifenweisangejieduan,chushijieduan、jiasujieduanhewendingjieduan,bingtichuchengzhenhuashuipingdadao30%hou,chengzhenhuajinchengjiangxunsujiakuai,zengjiadao70%houhuijiansu。chengzhenhuachushijieduanhejiasujieduandezhuyaodonglilaiyuanyugongye,houqizhuyaodonglizelaiziyuagzhenrenye。

(一)西藏城镇化与工业化发展的关系分析

AG真人    1.chengzhenhuayugongyehuadexiangguanxingbuqiang

yibanlaishuo,chengzhenhuayugongyehuamiqiexiangguan,bansuizhegongyedefazhan,chengzhenshuliangherenkouhuizhujianzengjia,chengzhenhuashuipingzhubutigao,chengzhendefazhanhefushekuosanzuoyong,youhuijinyibucujingongyedefazhan。yixiaduixizanggongyehuayuchengzhenhuadexiangguanxingjinxingfenxi,yi《xizangtongjinianjian》(2013)shujuweiyiju,yonggongyehualvzheiyizhibiaohenglianggongyehuashuiping,gongyehualvshizhigongyezengjiazhizhangdpdebizhong。

yigongyehualvweizibianliang,chengzhenhualvweiyinbianliang,huizhisandiantu,nihequshixian,dedaoxianxinghuiguifangcheng: y=1.6809x+8.5892。zhidezhuyideshi,erzhexiangguanxishujinwei0.485344,shuomingchengzhenhualvyugongyehualvdexiangguanxinghenruo,fanyingchuxizanggongyedefazhanduinongcunrenkoudexinazhuanyinenglijiaoruo,congerduichengzhenhuadeladongzuoyongbuqiang,zheiyuxizangdierchanyedegouchengyouguan,yeyunongcunlaodonglizishendelaodongjinengshuipingyouguan。(jiantu1,biao1)

图1. 城镇化率与工业化率线性关系图

数据来源:AG真人_平台首页

 

表1.城镇化率与工业化率回归分析结果

huiguitongji

multiple r

r square

adjusted r square

biaozhunwucha

guancezhi

0.485344

0.235559

0.159114

1.033844

12

 

fangchafenxi

 

df

ss

ms

f

AG真人significance f

huiguifenxi

1

3.293557

3.293557

3.081448

0.109717

cancha

10

10.68834

1.068834

 

 

zongji

11

13.9819

 

 

 

 

 

 

AG真人coefficients

biaozhunwucha

t stat

p-value

lower 95%

upper 95%

xiaxian 95.0%

shangxian 95.0%

intercept

8.589244

7.266993

1.181953

0.264568

-7.60262

24.78111

-7.60262

24.78111

gongyehualv

1.680944

0.957582

1.755405

0.109717

-0.45268

3.814568

-0.45268

3.814568

 

   

2.yuchengzhenhuashuipingxiangbi,gongyehuashuipingzhihou

yibanlaishuo,chengzhenhuayugongyehuadeguanxifenweisanzhongqingkuang,fenbieshi: chengzhenhuazhihouyugongyehua;chengzhenhuachaoqianyugongyehua;chengzhenhuayugongyehuaxiediaofazhan。tongchang,zaichengzhenhuadechujijieduan,gongyehualvgaoyuchengzhenhualv,erdaolechengzhenhuadegaojijieduan,zehuixingchengchengzhenhualvgaoyugongyehualvdegeju。jiuqigenbenyuanyin,shiyinweizaichengzhenhuafazhandegegejieduan,qizhuyaodonglishibutongde。biruzaichengzhenhuadechujijieduanhezhongjijieduanqianqi,qizhuyaodonglishigongyehua;erdaolechengzhenhuadegaojijieduan,qizhuyaodonglishidisanchanyedefazhan。yinci,zailixiangdezhuangtaixia,yigeguojiahuodiquruguonenggoushixianchengzhenhuayugongyehuaxiediaofazhan,neimezaigongyeshehuidezhongqianqi,chengzhenhualv、gongyehualvyufeinonghualvjihushisantiaopingxingshangshengdequxian。panduanchengzhenhuayugongyehuadeguanxi,xuyaoagzhenrenjinyibuyongkexuedefangfahejingquedeshujujinxingduliang。guojishangjingchangcaiyongiubilaipanduanchengzhenhuayugongyehuadeguanxi。iubishizhigongyehualvyuchengzhenhualvdebizhi,gongyehualvshizhigongyezengjiazhizhanquanbushengchanzongzhidebizhong。genjuguojibiaozhunzhifa,gongyehuayuchengzhenhuaerzhefazhanyuexiediao,iubiyuejiejin0.5。

rubiao2suoshi,chu2008nianwai,xizanggongyehualvjunbuzu8%,tu2qingxidifanyingleerzhededuibiguanxi,gongyehualvyuanyuanluohouyuchengzhenhualv,qieiubijunxiaoyu0.5,shuomingxiangduiyuchengzhenhuadekuaisufazhan,xizanggongyehuafazhanfeichangluohou。guojishangtongchangyonggongyehualvzheiyizhibiaolaihenglianggongyehuadebutongyanjinjieduan: jidanggongyehualvdadao20%~40%shiweigongyehuachuqi,gongyehualvdadao40%~60%shiweigongyehuazhongqi,gongyehualvdadao60%yishangshijiweigongyehuahouqi。yicibiaozhunhengliang,xizanggongyehuashuipingshangweidadaogongyehuafazhanchuqi,zheiyujinnianlaixizangchengzhenhuashuipingwenbuzengzhangyukuaisufazhanxingchengjiaodachaju。yibanlaishuo,gongyedekuaisufazhanweilaodonglitigongdaliangdejiuyejihui,congerladongnongcunlaodonglixiangchengzhenjuji。xizanggongyefazhanshuipingdi,jiyuzirantiaojianteshu、shengtaihuanjingcuiruodengxianzhitiaojianyouguan,yeyulishitiaojian、chanyezhengce、touzitiaojian、jishushuipingyouguan,jiazhinongmuqulaodonglishoujiaoyushuipingdi、laodongjinengbuzu,gongyeweilaodonglitigongdejiuyejihuihexinajiuyedenenglijiufeichangyouxian,yeyincizaochengxizangjiuyeyalida,nongmuminzengshouhuanmandengkunnan。

表2.西藏2001~2012年工业化率及IU比

nianfen

chengzhenhualv(%)

gdp(yiyuan)

gongyezengjiazhi(yiyuan)

gongyehualv(%)

iubi

2001

19.64

139.16

10.88

7.82

0.40

2002

19.89

162.04

11.65

7.19

0.36

2003

20.21

185.09

13.82

7.47

0.37

2004

20.52

220.34

16.10

7.31

0.36

2005

20.85

248.80

17.48

7.03

0.34

2006

21.13

290.76

21.71

7.47

0.35

2007

21.50

341.43

27.62

8.09

0.38

2008

21.90

394.85

29.48

7.47

0.34

2009

22.30

441.36

33.11

7.50

0.34

2010

22.67

507.46

39.73

7.83

0.35

2011

22.71

605.83

48.18

7.95

0.35

2012

22.70

701.03

55.11

7.86

0.35

 

数据来源:AG真人_平台首页

 

图2.西藏工业化率和城镇化率变化趋势比较

数据来源:AG真人_平台首页

 

AG真人3.yufeinonghuashuipingxiangbi,chengzhenhuashuipingzhihou

AG真人guojishangtongchangcaiyongnubilaipanduanchengzhenhuayufeinonghuadeguanxi。nu bishizhilaodonglifeinonghualvyuchengzhenhualvdebizhi,laodonglifeinonghualvshizhidier、sanchanyelaodonglizhanzonglaodonglidebili。canzhaoguojibiaozhun,nubidayu1.2,biaoshifeinonghuashuipingchaoqianyuchengzhenhuashuiping,jiyouxiangdangshuliangdefeinonglaodonglizhiliuzainongcun,weinengxiangchengzhenzhuanyi,chengzhenhuafazhanzhihou,qiebizhiyuedashuomingchengzhenhuazhihouchengduyuegao;nubixiaoyu1.2,biaoshichengzhenhuashuipingchaoqianyufeinonghuashuiping,jichengzhencunzaixiangdangshuliangdenongyelaodonglihuonongyerenkou,chengzhenhuafazhanchaoqian,qiebizhiyuexiaoshuomingchengzhenhuachaoqianchengduyuegao,jiguoduchengzhenhua。nubiyuejiejin1.2,erzhefazhanyuexiediao。

youbiao3kejian,2001~2012nianxizangdelaodonglifeinonghualvyizhigaoyuchengzhenhualv,nubijundayu1.2,shuomingyoudaliangcongshifeinongchanyedelaodonglirengranfensanzainongcundiqu,weinengxiangchengzhenzhuanyihejuji,zheiyuqianmianfenxidexizanggongyehualvjiaochengzhenhualuohou、nongmuqucunzaishuliangjiaoduodeshengyulaodonglidejielunshiyizhide。yinci,xizangnongmuqulaodonglixiangchengzhenzhuanyihejujidezhuyaodonglilaiziyudisanchanyedeladong,qieyilaodongmijixingdepifalingshouyehezhusucanyinyedengchuantongagzhenrenyeweizhu,shengchanxingagzhenrenyehexiandaiagzhenrenyefazhanbuzu,congerzaochenggongyehualvyuandiyuchengzhenhualvdetongshi,laodonglifeinonghualvyougaoyuchengzhenhualvzheiyiteshuxianxiang。

表3.西藏2001~2012年NU比变化趋势

nianfen

sancichanyejiuyejiegou(%)

laodonglifeinonghualv(%)

chengzhenhualv(%)

nubi

diyichanye

dierchanye

disanchanye

2001

71.0

6.5

22.5

29.0

19.64

1.48

2002

68.8

6.2

25.0

31.2

19.89

1.57

2003

64.1

9.3

26.6

35.9

20.21

1.78

2004

62.6

9.6

27.8

37.4

20.52

1.82

2005

60.1

9.5

30.4

39.9

20.85

1.91

2006

58.9

9.6

31.4

41.0

21.13

1.94

2007

56.0

10.8

33.2

44.0

21.50

2.05

2008

54.6

10.5

34.9

45.4

21.90

2.07

2009

54.5

10.8

34.7

45.5

22.30

2.04

2010

53.6

10.9

35.5

46.4

22.67

2.05

2011

50.3

12.2

37.5

49.7

22.71

2.19

2012

46.3

13.4

40.3

53.7

22.70

2.37

数据来源:AG真人_平台首页

 

(二)西藏城镇化的特征

xizangdexinxingchengzhenhuacunzaizhexuduoyuneidiheqitadiquwanquanbutongdexianzhutedianheteshuxing。

AG真人1.xizangquanqudejingjishehuifazhancunzaijiaodadediquchayi

AG真人birushuozangzhongjingjiqu,suiranzhizhanquanquguotumianjide25%,danshirongnalequanqu60%yishangderenkou,yinershiquanqutuijinxinxingchengzhenhuayurenkouzhuanyihejiuyedezhongdiandiqu;erzaiguangmaodezangbeicaoyuan,renkouxishao,chengzhenfazhanluohou,jujigongnengjiruo。yinci,ruhekexueheliliyongguotuziyuankongjian,shidujizhongshengchanshenghuokongjian,youhuachengzhenzongtikongjianbuju,peiyuchengzhenzengzhangjibingfahuiqifushedaidongzuoyong,tuijinchanyefazhan、jiuyezhuanyi、renkoujuji、gonggongagzhenrenjundenghuatongyi,zhuzhongchengzhenhuadezhiliangshibixujiejuedeguanjianwenti。

2.xizangxinxingchengzhenhuayuchengxiangxiediaofazhanruhejiehetongyi

xizangnongmuqudiguangrenxi,70%yishangderenkoujuzhuzaiguangmaodenongmuqu,xianyoudechengzhengongnengjiaoweiboruo,nanyiyouxiaofushe,chengxiangzhijiandejingjiwenhualianxichuyusongsanzhuangtai,nongmumin“jincheng”guannianxiangduiluohou,jiuyenengliruo,chengxiangxiediaofazhannandujida。tongshi,xizangchengxiangxiaofeijiegouchajujiaoda,shouruhexiaofeideeryuanjiegoutuchu,chengxiangchajumingxian,nanyixingchengtuijinxinxingchengzhenhuadeneixudongli。yinci,ruhejiejueyichengdaixiangdelianjiedian,tongguoxinxingchengzhenhuashixiannongmuqushengyulaodonglideyouxuzhuanyishijixupojiedenanti。

3.xizangxinxingchengzhenhuadenandianshinongmuqurenkoudezhuanyijiuye

xizangzongrenkoude75%yishangweinongmuqurenkou,jiuyerenkoushoujiaoyushuipinghendi,wenmanghuojinshouguoxiaoxuejiaoyusuozhanbizhonggaoda75.2%,zaochengjiuyeguannianluohou,jiuyenengliruo,yingxiangrenkoujujihechengzhenhuajincheng;ziranhuanjingyanku,tudideshengchanlihechengzailidi,huanjingyouxiaorongliangxiao,quanquzhongdianshengtaigongnengquhejinzhikaifaqudemianjifenbiezhanquanquguotumianjideyue70%yu40%,90%yishangdeguotuchuyugaohanquyu,ziyuanhuanjingyingyueshumingxian,zaochengxizangzhuyaorenkoujujudechengzhenjihudoumianlinzhehuanjingehuadeyanjunjumian。yinci,yaochongfenkaolvnongmuqurenkouxiangchengzhendeyouxuzhuanyi,yangekongzhitudikaifaqiangdu,genjuziyuanchengzailihechengzhenronglianglaijinxingchengzhenhua。

4.xizangrenkoudejiuyejiegouyuchanyejiegoushifenteshu

AG真人jiuyejiegouyuchanyejiegouteshu,muqiansancichanyedejiuyejiegouwei74.9︰5.2︰19.8,chanyejiegouwei13.5︰32.3︰54.2,chongfenshuomingnongmuqushengyulaodonglizhuanyisuduman,chanyefazhanduichengzhenhuazhichenglibuzu;zaidangqianjiuyerenkouzhong,dabufenjizhongyuyichannongmuye,jibenshanghaichuyuchuantongshengchanhuodongjieduan,jimeiyouxiangfeinongchanyezhuanyideyiyuanheguannian,tongshiyouyujiuyerenkoushoujiaoyushuipinghendi,zishenjinenghewenhuasuzhishoudaoxianzhi,yemeiyoujiuyezhuanyidenengli;youyuxizangdierchanyefazhandeguangduheshenduyouxian,gongyefanbunongmuyenengliruo,disanchanyerengchuyufazhanchuqi,nanyitigongdaliangdejiuyejihuiyishixiandaguimolaodonglidezhuanyi。yinci,weichengzhenhuatigongchanyezhicheng、jiaqiangjichujiaoyuweijiuyezhuanyitigongchixudonglishiyixiangjianjuerfuzaderenwu。

AG真人5.xizangtuijinxinxingchengzhenhuaxuyaoguojiateshuzhengcedezhichi

zaichengzhenhuajinchengzhongruhejiaqiangshengtaihuanjingbaohu、tigaozhengfuzhilinengli、gaijingonggongguanlizhiliang、huodezhangqijuezijinzhichi,zheixiewentidoujuyouquanjuxingheteshuxing。duixizangeryan,jingjishehuifazhanjichuboruobingshouziyuanhuanjingdeyueshu,zhangqiyikaoguojiacaizhengzhichiheduikouyuanzhu,shichangjizhibujianquan,zizhufazhannenglibuqiang,tuijinchengzhenhuasuoxudezhengcezhichi、zijinbaozhangnenglimingxianbuzu。yinci,nenggouzhengquguojiacengmiandezhengcezhichihezijinbaozhangduituijinxinshiqixizangxinxingchengzhenhuaxiandeyouweizhongyao。

AG真人san、xizangxinxingchengzhenhuadeneihanhelujing

jieheyishangfenxihelunzheng,xizangxinxingchengzhenhuayouzijidetedianheteshuxing,bixujianchizouyouzhongguotese、xizangtediandexinxingchengzhenhuadaolu。

(一)西藏新型城镇化的内涵

xizangxinxingchengzhenhuadeneihanyingdangbaokuoyixiajibenyaoqiu: 1.zhuzhongyirenweizhongxindechengzhenhua,yirenweiben,jiaodafudutishengrenminshenghuozhilianghezengjinfulishuiping,zuizhongshixianrendefazhan;2.jiaqiangminzutuanjieheshehuiwending,weihuguojiatongyihegonggubianjianganquan;3.zuodaochengzhenhuayugongyehua、xinxihua、nongyexiandaihua、zhengfuzhilixiandaihuatongbutuijin;4.youxianbaohuteseminzuwenhua,cujinjingji、shehui、wenhuadekechixufazhan;5.zaichengzhenhuajinchengzhongshizhongguanchuanshengtaiwenmingagzhenren,zhuzhongbaohuhehanyangshengtai;6.buduanwanshanshichangjizhi,quanmianrongruguoneidashichang,zhuburongruquyuxingdeguojishichang,chongfenliyongshichangjizhidiaodonggezhongziyuantuidongxinxingchengzhenhuafazhan。

tongshi,xizangxinxingchengzhenhuadexinyiyaotixianzaisigefangmian: 1.zaiqibujieduan,yaoxiquneidiyouqishiguoneiqitaminzudiqukuaisutuijinchengzhenhuajinchengzhongdejingyanhejiaoxun,zhuzhongtishengchengzhenhuadefazhanzhiliang。2.tongguotuixingchengzhenhua,tongchouchengxianghexiediaoquyufazhan;zaijuyoujigaodeziyuanhuanjingyueshuheshichangjizhibujianquandeqingkuangxia,tishengchengzhenhuadeshuiping。3.zaichengzhenhuadejinchengzhong,jiejuechengzhenzaitiheliangleifazhanwenti;chanyedefazhanshichengzhenhuadejichu,rendefazhanshichengzhenhuadezuizhongmude。4.tuijinxizangxinxingchengzhenhua,bixubawoxizangfazhanjieduandeteshuxing,tigaozhengfuzhilinengli,gaishangonggongguanlizhiliang,cujinxizangdeminzutuanjieyushehuiwending,shixianzhangzhijiuan。

(二)西藏新型城镇化的路径

jianchizouyouzhongguotese、xizangtediandexinxingchengzhenhuadaolu,xuyaoyindizhiyi,kexuehelidixuanzexizangchengzhenhuafazhanlujing。jutieryankeyikaolvxuanzejuyouruxiatezhengdelujing。

1.zaifazhanmubiaofangmian,zhuzhongdiqidian、gaomubiao、kuayueshi

muqian,xizangchengzhenhualvwei25.8%,bujiquanguopingjunshuipingdeyiban,zheijiangjuedingxizangzaiweilai20nianzuoyoushijiannei,chengzhenhuajinchengrengjiangchuyuchujijieduan,nongmuminjiangshizhongchuzaiquanqurenkoudedaduoshuzhuangtai,erqiexizangdejingjijichuxiangduiboruo,zheijiuyiweizhexizangtuijinchengzhenhuaxuyaocongjiaodideqidianchufa,tongguochuangxinnuli,shishi“feichengzhenhuaweizhudenongmuquchengzhenhuadaolu”huo“feichengzhenhuaweizhudefuminxingzangfazhandaolu”,jiangdaduoshudenongmuminnarudaochengzhenhuajincheng,gongxiangchengzhenhuachengguo,dadaogaozhiliang、gaobiaozhundexinxingchengzhenhuamubiao。juci,xizangkeyixuanzekuayueshidexinxingchengzhenhualujing。suoweikuayueshi,yishikuayuechuantongchengzhenhuaguochengzhongdegongyehuajieduan,zhuzhongjiyue、ditan、lvse、zhineng;ershikuayuechuantongchengzhenhuade“zaocheng”jieduan,zhijie“zaofu”yumin,tishengminzhongdexingfuzhishuhexingfugan;sanshikuayuechuantongchengzhenhuaderenkoujujiguocheng,shishijusanshiduhejiudichengzhenhua。

AG真人2.zaidonglijizhifangmian,zhuzhongzhengfuzhudao、shichangcanyu、shehuixietong、gongzhongcanyu

AG真人xinxingchengzhenhuadetuijin,xuyaogefangliliangdecanyu。zhengfubixufahuizaichengzhenhuazhanlvezhiding、zhengceshishidengcengmiandezhudaoxingzuoyong,tigaogonggongcaizhengzhuanyizhifunengli,zhuzhongminshengagzhenrenhejichusheshiagzhenren,chengdanyangejiandudezhize,yindaochengzhenhuaxiangzhekexuehelifangxiangdeyouxutuijin。tongshi,zhengfukeyitongguoyoudaoxingzhiduchuangxinhebianqianjizhi,jiadakaifanglidu,gengguangfandiyinrushichangjizhibingbuduanjiayiwanshan,zairongtouzifangmianfahuizuoyong,weichengzhenhuatigongzijinbaozhang。kexueyindaoshehuihegongzhongchongfenrenshidaoxinxingchengzhenhuadeshizhihezuizhongmubiao,bingyichengzhenhuafazhandeshixiaojilizaofuminzhong,congerfadongshehuihegongzhongliliang,xingchenghelituidongxizangchengzhenhuajincheng。

3.zaichanyezhichengfangmian,zhuzhongjuyoudiyu、chuantong、minzutesedechanyeyuxiandaichanyexiangjiehe

zaixinxingchengzhenhuadechanyezhichengfangmian,xizangbingbuyicaiyongyibande、chuantongyiyishangdegongyehua,bimianchengzhenkuodade“kongxinhua”hechanyefazhande“gudaohua”,ershiyaobachanyefazhanyuchengzhenhuahudongyoujiqilai,zuodao“chanchengyiti”。zheijiuxuyaochongfenfahuidiyu、chuantong、minzuwenhuatesechanyedeqianneng,tuchuwenhuachuancheng,zaicijichushangfazhanlvse、ditan、gaoxiaodexiandaichanye。zaichanyejiegoushang,kexuehelidifazhancaikuangyehechuantongnongmuye,yixinxihuaweiqijihedongli,jiadaxiandainongmuyedetourulidu,goujianqiyilvyouagzhenrenye、wenhuachanye、bianjingmaoyidengdisanchanyeweizhudejingjijiegou。

4.zaikongjianbujufangmian,zhuzhong“yiquanliangyisandianliangxian”goujia

AG真人xizangdiguangrenxi,120wanpingfanggonglidetudishangzhiyou310wanrenkou,zirantiaojiandute。zaikongjianbujushang,xizangdexinxingchengzhenhuaxuyaofuheqidilitezheng,tongshiyeyaojiehexizangjingjishehuifazhandelishixianshitiaojianjiweilaifazhanyaoqiu,jianchidian、zhou、mianxiangjiehedekaifafangshi,badianshifazhanyudianzhoufazhanjieheqilai,dalitishenglasa—zedangchengzhenquan,peiyuzhuangdayirikazeshisangzhuziqu、linzhixianbayizhenweizhongxindedongxiliangyi,tongchoutuijinzangdongkaruoquchengguanzhen、zangbeineiquxianneiquzhenhezangxigaerxianshiquanhezhen,gonggufazhanbianjingyanxianchengzhen,jiaqiangjiaotongyanxianzhongyaoxiaochengzhenagzhenren,cujinqitageleichengzhenxiediaofazhan,goujian“yiquanliangyisandianliangxian”dechengzhenhuakongjiangeju。

5.zaifazhanhexinfangmian,zhuzhongyirendefazhanweigenben、tigaorendesuzhi

xinxingchengzhenhuadezhongjimudejiushishixianrendefazhan,zaixizang,chengzhenhuadezhongdianjiushiyouxutuijinguangdadenongmuyerenkoushiminhua。zheijishilaodonglizhuanyi、jijudaochengzhendeziranguocheng,yeshizhengfugenjunongmuqurenkoufensan、jijuguimoxiaodanduigonggongagzhenrenyoupoqiexuqiudeshijiqingkuang,jiaqiangzhengceyindao,zhudongcaiqucuoshitigonggonggongagzhenren,shishijusanshiduhejiudichengzhenhuadeguocheng。tongshi,yaozhazhashishiba12nianyiwujiaoyuzuohao,tigaoxinshengdailaodonglidejibensuzhihejiuyenengli,heliyindaorenmenxingchengzhengquedexiaofeiguan;caiqugengjiajijidejiuyezhengce,zhuzhonglaodongzhezhiyejinenghezhiyedaodeshuipingdetigao,jiadapeixunlidu,chuangxinpeixunxingshihebanxuemoshi,zhubujianlihewanshanquanqujiuyechuangyejizhiheagzhenrentixi。

6.zaifazhanmoshifangmian,zhuzhongchengzhenhuayunongmuqugongtongfazhan

AG真人youyuxizangteshudedilihuanjinghenongmuyeshengchanfangshi,xinxingchengzhenhuabuyicaiqunongmuqurenkouxiangchengzhenjujidedanyimoshi,ershiyaogenjubutongdiqudetedian,xuanzeduoyangxingdechengzhenhuamoshi,tuchujiyuekaifa。zhuzhongbachengzhenhuaagzhenrenyufazhannongmuqujieheqilai,jianchiduoniantansuoxingchengdenongmuquyouqishigaohannongmuqushenghuofangshiheshengchanfangshishidufenli,agzhenrennongmuminshehuiagzhenrendian,guanzhunongmuminshenghuoshuipingdetigao,guanzhunongmuqushenghuotiaojiandegaishan,jinkenengdishixianjiudichengzhenhua。

 

[参考文献]

AG真人[1]chenxiushan,zhangkeyun.quyujingjililun[m].beijing:shangwuyinshuguan,2003.

[2]sunyong.xizang:feidianxingeryuanjiegouxiadefazhangaige[m].beijing:zhongguozangxuechubanshe,2000.

AG真人[3]yuyungui,wendeming,jinbayangpei.xizangchanyelun[m].beijing:zhongguozangxuechubanshe,1994.

[4]litao.zouchuxiangbala——xizang“yijianglianghe”liuyuxiangcunchengzhenhuayanjiu[m].lasa:xizangrenminchubanshe,1999.

[5]lilifeng,zhengdu.changdoudiquchengzhenfazhanzhanlvetansuo[j].zhongguozangxue,2003(1).

[6]luoyan,helinlin,zhurongyuan.chayihuayuanzhuyudashengtaiagzhenren——xizangalidiqushiquanhezhenguihuatansuo[j].chengshiguihua,2010(5).

[7]weihoukai.agzhenrenguochengzhenhuazhanlvediaozhengsilu[j].zhongguojingmaodaokan,2011(7).

 

(发表于《西藏民族大学学报》(哲学社会科学版)2016年第4期)

中共西藏自治区委员会党校 西藏自治区行政学院 保留一切文字图形权利 藏ICP备09000421
主办单位:AG真人_平台首页 制作单位: 中共西藏自治区委员会党校
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