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新型城镇化背景下基层社会治理创新研究

发布日期: 2015-12-21    作者:王松磊   来源:AG真人_平台首页 1826

摘  要: AG真人提倡以人为核心和城乡一体化的新型城镇化与基层社会治理创新在价值目标上表现出高度的一致性,在此背景下更应该强调村民自治和居民自治的相同和相通之处而不是二者的差别。然而在现行的体制下,化地造城的运动式传统城镇化问题没有得到明显改善,给村民自治和居民自治等基层社会治理带来了诸多困境,其根源在于农村土地集体所有权主体虚化。因此,对农村土地制度进行改革,赋予农民较为完全的土地产权,在社区层面实现党政经分离,重视公民的个人利益和需求,才能避免传统城镇化的问题,实现基层社会治理创新,推进新型城镇化进程。

关键词: 新型城镇化  基层社会治理  农村土地制度   基层社会治理结构 公民个人利益

 

AG真人zhongwentushufenleihao: d619       wenzhangbiaoshima: a        wenzhangbianhao:

 

AG真人research on the innovation of social governance of grass roots under the background of new urbanization

AG真人wang-songlei

(school of politics and public administration, shanxi university, taiyuan shanxi 030001, china;  administrative department , party school of tibet autonomous region, tibet lasa, 850000,china )

Abstract: To promote the new urbanization and the integration of urban and rural areas and the basic level of social governance innovation in the value of the objective to show a high degree of consistency, in this context, it should be emphasized that the villagers' autonomy and the residents' self-governance are the same and the similarities rather than the differences between the two. However, under the current system, the traditional urbanization of the city has not been significantly improved. To the villagers' autonomy and the residents' autonomy and other grass-roots social governance has brought a lot of difficulties. The root lies in the deficiency of the main body of rural land collective ownership. Therefore, in this paper, it seems that the reform of rural land system, to give farmers more complete land property rights, in the community level to achieve the separation of Party and government, pay attention to the personal interests and needs of citizens. Then to avoid the problem of traditional urbanization, realize the innovation of social governance at the basic level, and promote the process of new urbanization.

AG真人keywords : new urbanization; social governance at the basic level;rural land system;social governance structure at the basic level; personal interests of citizens

 

zhongguogongchandangdeshibajiesanzhongquanhuitichu,xingchengyigongcunong、yichengdaixiang、gongnonghuhui、chengxiangyitidexinxingchengxiangguanxi,rangguangdanongminpingdengcanyuxiandaihuajincheng、gongxiangxiandaihuachengguo,congzhanlvedegaoduweizhongguochengzhenhuafazhandaoluzhiminglemubiaohefangxiang。butongyuchuantongchengzhenhuadaolu,xinxingchengzhenhuaduijicengshehuizhiliyetichulexindeyaoqiu,xinxingchengzhenhuayujicengshehuizhilichuangxinzhijianyouheguanxi?chuantongchengzhenhuaduijicengshehuizhiliyouhefumianyingxiang?zhenduizheixiefumianyingxiang,zaixinxingchengzhenhuabeijingxia,ruhejinxingjicengshehuizhilichuangxin?zheixiewentijiangshibenwenzhongdianguanzhudewenti。

AG真人yi、xinxingchengzhenhuayujicengshehuizhilichuangxinzhijiandeguanxi

dangqian,juyouzhongguotesejicengshehuizhilidejibenzhiduzhuyaoyouliangge,yishinongcundecunminzizhi,ershichengshideshequjuminzizhi。shanggeshiji80niandaicunjuzizhizhidudeshishi,shixiangcunrenmingongshehechengshidanweizhizhujianxiaoronghoujicengshehuizhilimoshidezhongdagaigechuangxin,tongshiyejiyulebufenxuezhetongguojicengminzhushiyanshixianzixiaershangminzhudexiwang。cunjuzizhizhidufazhanzhijinwuluncongguangdushanghaishishendushangdouqudejudadejinbu,yinerchengweijicengshehuizhilidejibenmoshi。congzhidushejichuzhonglaikan,wulunshicunminzizhi,haishishequjuminzizhi,doushiyaotongguominzhuxuanju、minzhujuece、minzhuguanli、minzhujiandudadaoziagzhenrenguanli、ziagzhenrenjiaoyuheziagzhenrenagzhenrendemude。yinggaishuo,cunjuzizhiyeshizaizhongguogongchandangdelingdaoxiahezhengfudezhudaoxia,chengxiangjuminquanlizaijicengshehuideyishixiandejibenzhilimoshi。yinci,congmudelunlaikan,zhongguogongchandangsuotichangyouzhongguotesedeshehuizhiliyuxifangshehuizhilililunsuochangdaoduozhongxinziagzhenrenzhilibingwubenzhiqubie。bujinruci,jinguancunminzizhizhiduheshequjuminzizhizhidushizaichengxiangfenzhideeryuantizhikuangjiaxiashejide,erzhedemude、xingzhihejibenguizejunwubenzhihuoshizhidechabie。zaichengxiangeryuantizhixia,youyulishideyuanyinheziyuanliyixianshifenpeidekaolv,qiangdiaoerzhedequbieshikeyilijiede。danzaidangqianzhongguogongchandangtichangtuijinxinxingchengzhenhuadebeijingxia,jiubunengzaiqiangdiaoerzhequbie,xiangfangengyinggaiqiangdiaocunminzizhiyujuminzizhidexiangtongxiangtongzhichu。

xinxingchengzhenhuadeguanjianmubiaoshiyaoshixianchengxiangyitihuafazhan,erbujinjinshiyikaodachengshihuoxiaochengshidefazhan。shixianchengxiangyitihuadefazhanmubiaoxuyaojiejuedezhuyaowentishichengxiangchabiehechengxiangfenzhi。yuchuantongchengzhenhuadelijiebutong,xinxingchengzhenhuayirenweihexin,bujinyaorangnongminzaijingjishang、wuzhishangxiangshouyuchengshijuminxiangtongdedaiyu,gengzhongyaodeshizaifazhideqiantixia,fuyunongmingengduodequanli,xiangshouyuchengshijuminpingdengdeguominhuogongmindaiyu。zaituijinxinxingchengzhenhuabeijingxia,jicengshehuizhilibuzaiqufennongcunjuminhechengshijumin,yebuzaiqufencunminzizhihejuminzizhi,rangsuoyoujuminheshehuigefangdounenggoupingdengdicanyushehuigonggongshiwu。youcikejiantuidongjicengshehuizhilichuangxinyutuijinxinxingchengzhenhuazaijiazhimubiaoshangbiaoxianchugaodudeyizhixing,huozheshuoerzhehuweimudeheshouduan,tuijinxinxingchengzhenhuadeguochenglibukaijicengshehuizhilichuangxin,jicengshehuizhilichuangxinyeyilaiyuxinxingchengzhenhuadechenggongtuijin。

er、xinxingchengzhenhuabeijingxiajicengshehuizhilimianlindetiaozhan

xinxingchengzhenhuaweizhongguodechengzhenhuafazhandaoluzhiminglemubiaohefangxiang,jicengshehuizhiliyeweishixianchengxiangjuminquanlishejilemeihaolantu。buguorenhemeihaodelantudoulibukaixianshidelujingyilai。zhongguojicengshehuizhilidejibenzhidushicunminzizhihejuminzizhi,ranerzaixianxingdexingzhengtizhixia,difangzhengfuduichengzhenhuademangmuzhuiqiuduanqineinanyidedaoyouxiaoezhi,huadizaochengdeyundongshichengzhenhuawentiyemeiyoudedaomingxiangaishan,youciyanzhongqinfannongminliyidexianxiangrengjiucunzai。zhangqidechengxiangfenzhidailaideliyigejuhechengxiangchabiedesixiangguannianzaiduanqineiyebunengyouxiaogaibian,cungaijuhou,shequgonggongsheshihegonggongagzhenrenqueshi、juminshenfenzhuanbian、wailairenkoubunengcanyubenshequshiwudengbanchengzhenhuawentirengrancunzai。chuyuguanliheweiwenbianli,youqizaichengzhenhuamingyixiadezhengdichaiqianzhong,zhengfuguoduodegansheshidecunjuzizhimingbufushi。

(yi)banchengzhenhuaxianxiangduijicengshehuizhilidebuliyingxiang

henzaoyiqian,danghezhengfujiutichuyaotuijinchengzhenhuaagzhenren,qudelejudadechengjiu。lingyifangmian,youyugdpzhuyizhishang,yixiechengzhenhuadeshijianshiyijingjiduanqizengzhangweimubiao,dailaileyidingchengdudebanchengzhenhuaxianxiang,bingduijicengshehuizhilichanshenglebuliyingxiang。

所谓半城镇化是一种农村人口向城镇人口转换过程中的不完全城镇化状态,表现形态是半城镇化区域和人口半城镇化。[1]本文的半城镇化主要是指人口半城镇化。根据国家统计局发布的数据,2015年中国的城镇化率已达到56.1%,然而AG真人都知道这仅仅是具有统计意义的城镇化,挤掉水分的话,真实的城镇化率可能不足40%。在这种情况下,由于种种限制,大量长期生活在城镇的农民工难以得到与本地居民和市民平等的各项社会权利,没能够真正融入城市。农民工常年生活在城镇,导致了农村的衰落,也使村民自治失去了人口和经济基础。一般来说,农民工由于常年在外,跟村里除了家庭亲情之外的关系,除土地利益外并无太多的其他经济利益相关,一张选票的价值远比不上数天的打工所得和往返交通费用,甚至对他们来说谁当村干部根本就是无关紧要,而且这部分农民工正是青壮年。在农村仅留下一部分“386199”部队,维系着奄奄一息的村民自治,对解决农村当前迫切需要的问题起不了太大作用。同时,村民自治异化为村干部自治,村干部与一些不良势力形成同盟,主导农村政治市场,通过卖地、村办企业家族化等手段收回政治投资。[2]另一方面,由于户籍制度的限制,处于半城镇化状态下的农民难以参与务工所在社区自治,他们仍然被称之为流动人口,被看成是社会不稳定因素的来源。他们是社区管理的对象,甚至是维稳的重点人群,而不是基层社会治理的参与者。基于现实的诸多限制和当前的政策条件,半城镇化农民工的两栖处境,使他们既不可能有效参与城镇的基层社会治理,也难以参与乡村的社会治理,他们只是城镇的被管理者。

AG真人(er)chengzhenhuajinchengzhongjicengshehuizhilideneijuanhua

“内卷化”是美国人类学家吉尔茨在研究爪哇农业时首先提出的,对于研究中国农村问题有着较强的借鉴意义和理论解释力。其原意有“转或卷起来”的含义,既有复杂的、错杂的、卷成螺状的含义又有内卷、内旋、衰退和消散等含义。因此,就有了内卷、内缠、纠缠不清的事物,以及退化和复旧等含义。[3]

在城镇化进程中,人口就地城镇化、日益房地产化的“城中村”改造,直接冲击到正常的基层社会治理,部分地方政府低价强征土地和强迫农民“上楼”,使城镇化沦为商业化的房地产开发。[4]统计表明,通过房地产化的“城镇化”,地方政府能够获得土地增值收益的20%-30%,开发商获得40%-50%,只有20%-30%的增值留在征地村和拆迁村,而普通农民获得5%-10%的征地补偿费。[5]拆迁过度房地产化,一些居民被迫迁到政府划定的社区,被迁出居民虽然上了楼但居住条件未必有多大改善,得到了一定的补偿却远离了熟悉的生活环境,失去了传统的生计条件,由此产生了强烈的失落感和被放逐感。[6]

qiangxingdezhengdichaiqiangenghuizhijiechongjijicengshehuizhili。weilejinkuaiwanchengzhengdichaiqian,difangzhengfuhuizhijieyingxiangcunganbudexuanju,xiangjinbanfarangtinghuapeihederendangshangcunganbu。duiyubutinghua、weicunminweiquanderen,wulunzaixuanjuzhongdepiaolvyouduogaominyiyouduoqiang,difangzhengfuyehuitongguogezhongfangshiqidangxuanbulecunganbu,yinweizheixierenwangwanghuichengweicunminliyidedaiyanren,huozijihuozuzhicunmingenzhengfuduizhegan,shizhengdichaiqiangongzuobunengshunlijinxing。duiyucunmin,difangzhengfuwangwanghuicaiqufenhuadeshouduanjiangcunzhuangliyizhijieweidangecunminjiatingdeliyi,wajiecunmindezizuzhinenglihegonggongyishi。jibianchenggongjinxinglezhengdichaiqian,cunmindoubanjinlexindeshequchengweichengzhenjumin,danyouyuzaidifangzhengfudeganyuxiazaoyisangshigonggongyishihegonggongjingshen,jicengshehuizhilishijishangyijingshiqulejingshenjichu。

从治理角度来看,压力性体制下的地方政府往往借助行政权力干预基层自治,使基层自治陷入有名无实的内卷化状态。无论是征地拆迁还是征地拆迁后基层社会秩序的恢复正常过程中,政府不但不会放权,相反还会经常侵入脆弱的村居自治,用严密的行政模式控制基层干部,通过种种手段来确保自己的意志得以贯彻。名义上是选举出来的村居干部,实际上已经变成了“官派”,地方政府从而能够轻而易举地将自己承担的职责延伸到村委会和居委会,使村居委会的职能严重泛化而陷入行政化的泥潭中,村居代表大会的形式意义大于实质内容,村居民参与更多地只是装饰性功能。在大多数村居民眼中,现在的村委会和居委会充其量不过是政府的行政延伸组织,而并未将它看成是实现民主权利和社会治理的基层组织,因此不管村委会或居委会组织什么样的活动或者如何努力发动群众,群众仍不会有较高的参与意识和参与热情,以至于有些村居委会采取利益互换的方式来换取群众的参与。[7]因此由于体制性的权威干预,以村居自治为代表的基层社会治理实际上出现了严重的内卷化。

(san)chengzhenhuajinchengzhongjicengshehuizhilijiegoukunjing

wulunshizainongcunshequhaishizaichengshishequ,doucunzaisangezuijibendezuzhijijicengdangzuzhi、zizhizuzhiheshequjingjizuzhi,sanzhezhijianfuzaguanxiyinqileshehuigejiedeguanzhu,bingyinfalexuejiedezhuduoyanjiu。zaituixingxinxingchengzhenhuajinchengzhong,ruhezhengquechulisanzhezhijiandeguanxiyeshijicengshehuizhilidezhongyaoneirong。

duiyujicengdangzuzhihezizhizuzhizhijianguanxi,zaiguanfanghexuejiexingchengleliangzhongjieranbutongguandianhekanfa。guanfangchuyuguanlidefangbian,qingxiangyudangzuzhishujijianrencun(ju)weihuizhurenhedangzuzhibanzichengyuanjianrencun(ju)weihuibanzichengyuan,jisuoweide“yijiantiao”he“jiaocharenzhi”,erqiezheizhongqingxiangyuelaiyuelaimingxian。2013niandiguangdongshengzhaokailecun、shequ“liangwei”huanjiexuanjugongzuodianshidianhuahuiyi,huiyiyaoqiuquanshenggejizhengfu、gebumenyaocaiqucuoshi,jinyibutigao“yijiantiao”he“jiaocharenzhi”debili,lizhengdadao80%demubiao。zaijingjifadadeguangdongruci,shijishangqitadifangzhengfuduoshuyexiwangruci。zaidifangzhengfukanlai,“yijiantiao”he“jiaocharenzhi”defangshiyouliyudangzuzhilingdaozuoyongdefahui,youliyubadifangdangweizhengfudeyiyuanhequnzhongdeyiyuantongyiqilai,gengzhongyaodeshigongguzhongguogongchandangzainongcundezhizhengdiwei,bingrenweishijicengzuzhiagzhenrendefangxiang。

而在学界更多是从村居自治的角度出发对这种方式的批评,有的学者认为阻碍村民自治成长的另一种直接因素是村党支部,村党支部往往有意无意地误解或曲解党的领导的科学内涵,AG真人国现行法律制度未能明确划分党支部与村委会各自的职权范围。因此导致村党支部得以借口实施领导权,兼行本应属于自治组织的权力,村党支部拍板决定村中各种事项,村委会成了党支部的执行机构,自治组织则丧失了自治权利。[8]在城镇社区,由于社区党组织与社区自治组织的关系认识不清,处理不顺,导致社区党组织在社区AG真人中越位、缺位、泛化、弱化、脱节等,意味着党的领导核心作用没有发挥出来,社区自治组织依法自治的职权也没得到落实,从而限制了社区党建和社区AG真人的工作效果。[9]

关于自治组织和集体经济组织关系的争议由来已久,其争论无外乎两种,一是自治组织和集体经济组织合并,另一种是二者的分离。从现有法律规定来看,自治组织和集体经济组织两者之间存在职责权限交叉重叠的问题。农业法规定,管理好、利用好、保护好集体资产,确保集体资产保值增值是农村集体组织的主要职能。而村组法也赋予了村民委员会此项职能,“管理本村属于村民集体经济所有的土地和其他财产”。《民法通则》第七十四条规定: “集体所有的土地依照法律属于农民集体所有,由村农业生产合作社等农业集体经济组织或者村委会经营、管理。”[10]关于集体资产管理的法律规定混乱由此可见一斑,然而在实践中,多数村集体经济组织不是不存在就是功能虚化、弱化,村委会也往往忽视农业法、民法通则等与己关系遥远的法律规定,而倾向于执行与己关系密切的村委会组织法,替代村集体经济组织的情况相当普遍。[11]

AG真人buguo,yanjiuzhongyouhenduoxuezherenweicunminzizhizuzhiyucunjitijingjizuzhiyingdangfenli。cunweihuizuoweizuizhongyaodecunminzizhizuzhi,leisiyuzhengfuzuzhi,qizongzhibenyingshiweicunmintigonggexiangagzhenren,yingbingchengminzhu、gongkai、gongzhengdeyuanze,buyingjuyinglixing,buxuyaochengdanshichangfengxian。erjitijingjizuzhizuoweijingjizuzhideyizhong,genbenzongzhizaiyumouqiujingjixiaoyi,xiaolvshiqiyunzuodegenbenyuanze,xuyizhaoshichangjingjiguilvxingshi,bingqiechengdanshichangfengxian。erzheyouzheyuanzexingde、genbenxingdequbie。xianshizhong,cunweihuiyouquanchulicunzhuanggonggongshiwu,haiyouquankongzhibencuntudi,cunminzizhiwangwangyujudadeliyijiuchanzaiyiqi,zaiminzhujiandubuli、guanlibuguifandeqingkuangxia,cunminzizhidewutaiyongyuanshiliyizhengduodelajuzhanchang,yanzhongbuliyujicengshehuizhili。lingyigezhongyaoyuanyinzaiyu,dangqianjitijingjizuzhi、cunjuweihui、cunjudangzhibudenghunzaiyiqi,jicengshequganbushenjianduozhi,bujinyaoguanlishequderichangshiwu,yeyaofuzejingjifazhanzhongren,youyushiwufanduo,quanliguoda,shequganburongyihushishehuigonggongagzhenrenguanli,shideshequminzhuzizhinanyiluoshi。

AG真人(si)nongcuntudijitisuoyouquanxuhuaduijicengshehuizhilideyingxiang

在本文看来,土地问题是三农的根本问题,也是推进新型城镇化实现基层社会治理创新的根本问题。当前二元经济体制总体格局依然存在,集体所有的农村土地被赋予了太多的政治色彩,对农民的保障功能和福利功能似乎也在进一步固化,其作为生产资料和生产要素的功能却被弱化。[12]在现行制度条件下,土地不能自由买卖,农民个体作为农民集体的一员,与土地捆绑在一起,依旧同生产队时期一样,不能自由退出农民集体,事实上作为普通农民他们也不可能退出农民集体,现行的农村土地制度是农民身份固化的根本因素,也是阻碍城乡一体化的根本因素。

AG真人baokuoputongnongmin、zhengfuguanyuanhebufenxuezhe,zaihenduorenyanzhong,nongcuntudishiguojiadeguanniangenshendigu,taiduorenduinongcuntudisuoyouquanguishurenshibuqing,yebumingque。jibianshizuijinquanguopubiantuixingdenongcuntudiquequan,suomingquederengranjinjinshinongmingetihuojiatingduinongcuntudideshiyongquanhejingyingquan,duiyuduoshunongminlaishuo,genmeiyouquequanzhiqianxiangbi,bingwutaidadeshijiyiyi,tudirengranbujuyouwanzhengdewuquanhechanquan。huigujianguoyilaidetudizhidubianqianshi,keyifaxiandangqianzhongguotudizhiduzuigenbendetezhengshisuoyouquanheshiyongquandefenli。suoyouquanshuyunongminjiti,ranernongminjitizuoweiyidingshuliangnongmindejihequeshiyigexuzhidegainian,shichouxiangde、meiyoufalvrenge。congfalvdejiaodulaikan,hennanquedingnongcuntudijiufendezhuti,getinongminbujuyoutudisuoyouquan,bujubeisusongguanxizhutidezige。youshengchanduiyanbianerlidecunminxiaozusuiyoutudisuoyouquan,quebujuyoufalvshangderenge。cunweihuibuyongyouhuoyongyouhenshaodetudisuoyouquan,zhishizaixianshizhongyouyucunminxiaozumeiyoulegongzhangerdaixingfabaoquan,shijishangbingbujuyoufabaoquan,yebunengjuyoujingyingheguanliquan,yinci《cunzufa》guidingcunweihuikeyiguanlihejingyingnongcunjitijingjiqishibingbujuyouminfashangdefalvxiaoli。zaixianxingdefalvzhiduzhong,nongminjitidegainianhunluanmohu,shitudijitisuoyouquanxuhuadezhijielaiyuan,zhengyinweiruci,nongcunjititudiwufatongguoziyoumaimaierzainongminshouzhongshixianqijiazhi,bingzaochengzhengfutudizhengyongquandelanyong,ertudibuchangfeikeyimingzhengyanshundiweicunweihuihejitijingjizuzhijieliunuoyong,zaochengcunzhuangquanlijizhonghequanlifubai,jinerduiyouxiaokaizhanjicengshehuizhilidailaizhimingdaji。

san、xinxingchengzhenhuajinchengzhongchuangxinjicengshehuizhilidesikao

shangwentidao,tuidongjicengshehuizhilichuangxinyutuijinxinxingchengzhenhuazaijiazhimubiaoshangshiyizhide,suobutongzhichujinzaiyushouduanhejiaodudechabie。xinxingchengzhenhuagengjiaqiangdiaojingjimubiaohejingjishouduan,erjicengshehuizhiliqiangdiaoquanlimubiaohezhilifangshi。congerzhelianxilaikan,jicengshehuizhilichuangxinyilaiyuxinxingchengzhenhuadechenggongtuijin,xinxingchengzhenhuaweijicengshehuizhilichuangxintigongjingjijichuhewuzhitiaojian;erxinxingchengzhenhuadechenggongtuijinlibukaijicengshehuizhilichuangxin,jicengshehuizhiliweituijinxinxingchengzhenhuatigongquanlibaozhanghezhiduzhicheng。jutilaishuo,zhenduituijinchengzhenhuajinchengzhongjicengshehuizhilimianlindetiaozhan,guanyuruheshixianjicengshehuizhilichuangxin,benwentichuyixiajidiansikao。

AG真人(yi)tuijinxinxingchengzhenhuashixianjicengshehuizhilichuangxinyaoyinongcuntudizhidugaigeweigenbenyiju

土地是三农问题的根本,也是推进新型城镇化、创新基层社会治理的关键。改革农村现行的土地制度已经成为共识,分歧在于如何改。有人主张农村土地国有化。既符合社会主义本质要求,也容易得到政治体制的支持,既有利于土地综合整治,也有利于国家的宏观调节,并且能够适应农业生产的规模化经营。这种观点反对者众多,从农民手中再一次将土地收回去,农民不能接受,也不现实。有人主张应该土地私有化,这种主张支持者很多,但也有不少反对者,担心土地私有化后土地兼并问题,这是引发改朝换代的重要原因之一,同时土地私有化不符合现行政治体制和意识形态的要求。也有人主张多重所有制并存,在新型城镇化背景下实行“私田”和“公田”并存的两田制[13],利用方式类似于集体化时期既有生产队集体耕作的土地和以家庭为单位的自留地。

AG真人yiqianagzhenrenduitudidekanfashi,zainongcuntudijijuyoujingjigongneng,yejuyouhenqiangbaozhanggongneng,tudibujinkeyiweinongmindailaikeguandejingjishouyi,erqiehaikeyiweinongmintigongyidingdeshehuibaozhang,yibaozhengshehuideanquanwending。ranerzaitichangchengxiangyitihuadebeijingxia,nongminhechengshijuminyiyangdoushizhongguodeguominhegongmin,yingdangxiangshouyiyangdeguomindaiyuheshehuibaozhang,ertigongshehuibaozhangdezhutiyingdangshizhengfuheguojia,nongcuntudibuyingdangzaijuyoubaozhanggongneng。zaizheizhongqingkuangxia,agzhenrenduinongcuntudiderenshiyinggaiyousuogaibian,zaiwanshandeshichangjingjizhong,tudizuoweiyizhongshangpinheshengchanziliaoyuqitashangpinbingwubenzhiqubie,yingdanggenfangwudengqitabudongchanyiyangjubeiwanquandechanquan。qishizhengrushangwensuoshu,xianxingtudizhidusuodailaidezhuduowentigenbenyuanyinjiushinongcuntudiduiyusuoyourenlaishuodoubujuyouwanquandechanquan。youqishixianzhilenongmingongdeziyouliudong,erdangnongminyongyouletudidewanquanchanquanyihou,jiukeyiziyoudetuichuhuojiarumougeshequ,banchengzhenhuawentiziranjiunenggoudedaojiejue。suoweidehujizhiduwenti,wufeiyeshixianxingtudizhidudefudaichanpin,fuyunongminwanquandetudichanquan,hujizhiduyejiubuchengweiwentile。lingwai,nongmingongnenggoushixianziyouliudong,jibianzaishichangjingzhengzhongshibai,yehuiyouguojiadeshehuibaozhangzhiduweiqitigongjibendeshehuibaozhangerbuzhiyuxianrubunengshenghuodejingdi,zheishixiandaiguojiayuzhengfudezerensuozai。yincichengxiangyitihuayihoumeiyoubiyaojiangnongcundeshehuibaozhangjituozaitudishang。

(er)jicengshehuizhilichuangxinyaoshixianshequcengmiandedangzhengjingfenli

jiejuelenongcuntudidechanquanwenti,jiexialaicunzhuangshequdezhilijiegouyehuixiangyingdifashengbianhua。zaijicengshehuizhilijiegouzhong,dangdejicengzuzhi、zizhizuzhiheshequjingjizuzhisanzhezhijianfuzaguanxiyijiyouciyinfadezhilikunjing,yinqilerenmendezhuduoguanzhu,danruhepojiecikunjing,zhangqiyilairenmendoushikuwuduice。2011nianguangdongshengnanhaiqujinxingweiqishuniandezhengjingfenlishiyan,sihuweitupocikunjingtigonglesilu,bingyinfalezhuduoxuezhedeguanzhu。

AG真人yishishixingxuanminfenli,gelixuanjusangezuzhi,bendangzuzhidequantidangyuanxuanjuchanshengcunjudangzuzhilingdao,cun(ju)minxuanjuchanshengcun(ju)zizhiweiyuanhuilingdao,juyouxuanjuzigedesheyuanguminxuanjuchanshengshequjingjizuzhilingdao。ershishixingzuzhifenli,liqingsangezuzhizhineng,jinengbaozhengjitijingjizuzhidezhengchangyunzuo,bushouhuoshaoshoudangzuzhihezizhizuzhihuanjiedeyingxiang,yenengbaozhangduijitijingjiguanlideyanxuxing。dangzuzhidezhuyaozhinengshiqianghualingdao、yindaojiandu,zizhizuzhifuzeshequguanliheshequagzhenren,jingjizuzhiguanlijingyingjitijingji,fazhanjitijingji。sanshishixingganbufenli,zhongxinquelisangezuzhidegongzuojiagouhechengyuan,dangzhibushujibunengjianrenjingjizuzhilingdaochengyuan,congergenghaodifahuiduizizhizuzhihejitijingjizuzhidelingdaohejianduzuoyong,zizhizuzhilingdaochengyuanbunengyujingjizuzhichengyuanjiaocharenzhi,buzhijiecanyujitijingjijingying。sishishixingyijueshifenli,zailiqingsangezuzhizhinengzhizerenwudejichushang,mingqueminzhuyishijuecejikaizhishenpiquanxian,quebaosangezuzhianzhaogezizhinengguifanyunzuo。wushizhangmufenli,lishunjitizichanchanquanguanxi,duijitizichanquequandengji,jiangjingyingxingzichanmingquedengjizaijitijingjizuzhimingxia,jiangfeijingyingxingzichanmingquebingdengjizaizizhizuzhimingxia,shelijingjizhanghexingzhengzhang,shixinghesuan、zhangwuhezichansanfenli。

“五个分离”与现代社会治理结构是吻合的,在社区层面实现了职责明晰化、组织完善化,较好地理顺了基层社区组织关系,从制度和体制上保障了党政经相分离,使党组织回归领导监督职能,自治组织回归社区管理和社区AG真人,经济组织回归集体资产经营管理,形成了以党组织为核心、自治组织为主体、集体经济组织为支撑、群团组织为辅助、社会组织为补充的基层社会治理新机制。[14]虽然南海实验取得了明显的成效,但并未得到推广,原因很简单,在现行的制度框架下,由于利益关系变更太大,没有上层强力支持,地方政府、党的基层组织、村居委员会、集体经济组织都没有动力推行“党政经分离”,而希望“党政经分离”的普通农民、社员和部分学者在改革中基本不能起作用。

AG真人(san)jicengshehuizhilichuangxinyaoyigongmingerenliyihexuqiuweichufadian

AG真人zaichuantongdexingzhengtizhixia,chengzhenhuahuochengzhenhualvbenshenchengweidifangzhengfuzhuiqiudemubiao,weilejiakuaichengzhenhuajinchenghuotigaochengzhenhualv,zhengdichaiqianchengledifangzhengfudetoudengdashi,jineryanzhongqinhainongminliyidexingweishiyoufasheng,sheidoubuxiwangxinxingchengzhenhuadaolushizheiyangde,zhengrudongnanyanhaideyiweicunganbuhuyudeneiyang“tuijinchengzhenhuadesudutaikuaile,nengbunengfanghuanyixie?”qishihenduorendouzaidanxinhuozhezhiyiyiqinhainongminliyiweidaijiadechengzhenhuashifoubiyao。butongyuchuantongchengzhenhuadaolu,yirenweihexindexinxingchengzhenhuayingdangshouxianbaozhangnongmindeliyibushousunshi。tongshi,nongcunjuminhechengzhenjuminbuzaiyousuochabie,doujiangyigongminhuoguomindeshenfentongdengdicanyuxiandaihuajincheng,xiangshouxiandaihuachengguo。yincixinxingchengzhenhuabuyingjinjinshijiazhimubiao,gengyinggaishishixiangongminliyihexuqiudegongjuhuoshouduan。yuzhixiangshiying,jicengshehuizhilichuangxinyeyinggaishiyishixianhebaozhanggongminquanliweichufadian。weileshixianhebaozhanggongminquanli,zaifalvcengmian,zhengfuyinggaiqieshizuodaoyifabanshiheyifaxingzheng;zaijiceng,zhengfuyingdangbachengzhenhexiangcunnaruyitihuadeguanliheagzhenren,bagonggongagzhenrenhegonggongchanpindetourugengduodixiangnongcunqingxie,buchangzhengfuzhizezhangqiyilaizainongcundequewei;chuletigonggonggongagzhenrenhegonggongsheshiwai,zhengfuyingjishequshaoxiarenwu,jianshaoduishequzizhideganshe,quchushequxingzhenghuadeqingxiang,chongfenbaozhangbingshixianshequdezizhiquanli。

 

cankaowenxian:

[1]hewei,huangxianjin. banchengshihua: zhongchengshihuajinchengzhongdeliangleiyihuaxianxiangyanjiu[j].chengshiguihuaxuekan,2012(2): 24-32.

AG真人[2]lizupei. hunhun、xiangcunzuzhiyujicengzhilineijuanhua——xiangcunhunhundeliliangbiaodajihouguo[j].qingnianyanjiu, 2011(3): 55-67.

[3]hedonghang. zhongguocunminzizhizhidu“neijuanhua”xianxiangdesikao——yifujiannanbudeyigecunzhuangzhiliweili[j].jingjishehuitizhibijiao,2007(2): 100-105.

AG真人[4]yaowei. xinxingchengzhenhuayucunminzizhi[j].liluntantao,2014(3): 53-63.

[5]lijunjie. tudidiaokongyingzheliyutudiliyifenpeidezaidiaozheng——jianlundangqiantudidiaokongdezhengcexiaoying[j].zhongguowujia,2007(10):57-60.

[6]chenyingfang. chengshikaifadezhengdangxingweijiyuhelixingkongjian[j].shehuixueyanjiu,2008(3): 29-56.

[7]chenli,wangsonglei,cang la. lasachengshishequagzhenrenyanjiu[r].2013nianduxizangzizhiqushehuikexuejijinzizhuxiangmu(xiangmubianhao: 12bzz001): 121-132.

[8]guhangyu. zhongguodedangzhengxitongyucunminzizhi——cunminzizhishengcunyufazhandezhengzhishengtaihuanjingfenxi[j].xingzhengyufa,2002(8):22-26.

AG真人[9]liujiyuan. duishequdangzuzhiheshequjuminzizhizuzhiguanxidesikao[j].zhongyangshehuizhuyixueyuanxuebao,2009(6): 82-85.

AG真人[10]xuzengyang,yangcuiping. hebingyihuofenli: cunweihuihecunjitijingjizuzhideguanxi[j].dangdaishijieyushehuizhuyi,2010(3): 16-18。

[11]zhangliqin. cunweihuijijitijingjizuzhiguanxigoujiandelujingxuanze[j],anhuinongyedaxuexuebao(shehuikexueban).2008(6): 47-52.

AG真人[12]zhujijiang. chengzhenhuajinchengzhongnongcuntudizhiduyanjiu[d].nanchang: jiangxicaijingdaxueshuoshilunwen,2012.

AG真人[13]wangsonglei. nongcunshequagzhenrenshijiaoxiacunzhuangzuzhizaizao[d].wuhan: huazhongshifandaxueshuoshilunwen,2008.

[14]dengweigen. tuixing“zhengjingfenli”wanshanjicengzhili[j].weishi,2013(9): 12-13.

中共西藏自治区委员会党校 西藏自治区行政学院 保留一切文字图形权利 藏ICP备09000421
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