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世界屋脊的新生 人类解放的丰碑

发布日期: 2018-03-26    作者:毛奇   来源:AG真人_平台首页 0

neirongtiyao: xizangminzhugaigeyizhengzhijiefangweiqianti,yijingjideshehuijiefangweijichu,yirenzishenjiefangweimude,saochulerenmenshixianziyoufazhandezhiduzhangai,zasuiletaozaibaiwannongnushenshangdezhuanzhijiasuo,shirenleijiefangshishangdezhuanglipianzhang。jintiandexizang,shehuidajuhexiewending,jingjichixujiankangfazhan,minzhufazhibuduantuijin,tongyizhanxianfazhanzhuangda,xuanchuanwenhuachengxiaoxianzhu,shengtaihuanjingbaochilianghao,shehuishiyequanmianjinbu,minzutuanjiechixugonggu,zongjiaoshixianhemuhexie,gaigekaifangzhubushenhua,yuanzanggongzuolidujiada,dangdeagzhenrenquanmianjiaqiang。agzhenrenjinianminzhugaige,shiyaojinianrenleijiefangshishangdezheiyiweidachuangju,shiyaojiashenduixinjiuxizangbinghuoliangzhongtiandeshenkerenshi,congerjifagezurenmindeangyangdouzhi。

AG真人renleijiefang,shixianrendeziyouquanmianfazhan,shigongchandangrenweizhifendoubuxidezhuanglishiye。makesizhuyibingqilejindaixifangzhengzhizhexuezhongduirendejiefanghuaerbushidechanshi,jiangrendejiefangguijieweizhengzhijiefang、shengchanlijiefangherenzishenjiefangsanzhexianghulianxidelishifazhanguocheng,weishixianrenleijiefangzhimingleqianjindefangxianghezhengquedelujing。60nianqian,zhongguogongchandangrenyanzhezheiyiluojijiangshixianrenleijiefangdezhuanglishiyefuzhuxizangshijian,lingdaoxizanggezurenminweishixianziyouquanmiandefazhan,jinxingleyirendejiefangweihexinneirongdeminzhugaige,baiwannongnufanshendangjiazuozhu,shijiewujiyinglaixinsheng。

anwutianrideguoqu

AG真人“renrenshengerziyou”,ziyoushirensuoguyoudedongxi,shirendebenzhililiangsuozai。raner,zheizhongrenshengerjuyoudejibenrenquan,zaijiuxizangquebeiheiandezhengjiaoheyidefengjiannongnuzhiyemanboduo,zheibujinshijiuxizangshehuidebeiai,gengshirenleiwenmingdebeiai。

shehuidiweidengjisenyan,renshenpohailingrenfazhi。jiuxizangdefengjiannongnuzhiyuouzhouzhongshijidefengjiannongnuzhixiangbi,gengtuxianchuheian、luohou、yemandetezheng,zheishiyigejianlizainongnuzhuduitudidengshengchanziliaojueduizhanyoujichushangdefengjiannongnuzhidu,zheishiyigenongnuduinongnuzhucunzaiyanzhongrenshenyifuguanxidefengjiannongnuzhidu。huanyanzhi,yiguanjia、guizu、siyuanshangcengsenglvgouchengdesandalingzhuweidaibiaodefengjiannongnuzhujiejibujinbazhanzheshengchanziliao,haibazhanzhenongnurenshen。jingjijichujuedingshangcengjianzhu,shengchanziliaodesuoyouzhezhudaohejuedingzhejiuxizangdeyiqie。nongnuzhutongguoduitudidengshengchanziliaodegaodulongduanheqiangquanbazhan,yijiduinongnurenshendeyemanzhanyou,bujinsougualveduonongnudelaodongchengguo,gengshiyoushiwukongdiduinongnushiyixuexingderenshenpohai。guangdanongnubeidangzuosiyoucaichansuiyichuzhi,shengsihunjiadaquanbeilaolaozhangkongzainongnuzhushouzhong,beirenyimaimai、zhuanrang、zengsong、diyahejiaohuan,beirenyidamahequshi,beirenyilanyongzhuruduanshou、duojiao、wanmu、geer、choujin、geshe、toushui、touyadengjiweicankudexingfa。nongnudezinvzhudingzhongshenweinu,shishidaidainanyifanshen,shenghuojingyuzhibeicanshisuohanjian。jiuxizangde《shisanfadian》he《shiliufadian》,mingquejiangrenfenchengsandengjiuji,renyurenzhijiandebupingdengdiweizhijietongguofalvxingshiquedingxialai,shangdengshangjiderenmingjiaweishitidengzhongdehuangjin,erxiadengxiajiderenmingjiajinweiyigencaosheng。zaizheianwutianrideshehuili,huanglunjibenrenquan,shenhurendeziyouhejiefang,rendeziyouquanmianfazhanzhinengshichirenshuomengdeshenhua。

AG真人shengchanlishuipingdixia,jingjifazhantingzhibuqian。shengchanlijuedingshengchanguanxi,shengchanguanxiyoufanzuoyongyushengchanli。shengchanlizaishehuifazhanzhongchuyuhexindiwei,zhengshiyinweijingjifazhanduiyuzhenggeshehuifazhanqizhejichuxingdezuoyong,shengchanlijiefangchengweishixianrendejiefangdezhongyaoneironghejibenhuanjie。makesifanfuqiangdiao,“dangrenmenhaibunengshizijidechihezhuchuanzaizhiheliangfangmiandedaochongfenbaozhengdeshihou,renmenjiugenbenbunenghuodejiefang”。makesizaipipanzibenzhuyishehuishizhichu,laodongduigongrenlaishuoshiwaizaidedongxi,gongrenzaizijidelaodongzhongbushikendingziji,ershifoudingziji,bushigandaoxingfu,ershigandaobuxing,bushiziyoudifahuizijidetilihezhili,ershishizijideroutishouzhemo、jingshenzaocuican。jiuxizangluohoudeshengchanguanxiyanzhongzhiguleshengchanlidefazhan。zaifengjiannongnuzhidebihuxia,nongnuzhuduiguangdanongnuzhankaileyemandeyazha,erjuequnongnuyeyijirilaozuodechengguo,jinshiyongyizhichengnongnuzhushemideshenghuo。nongnuzhuchenzuiyuzheiyangdeshenghuo,gengshi“ganen”dailaizheiyiqiedefuxiumeiluodefengjiannongnuzhidu,wangubuhua,gubuzifeng,haobugulvzheiyangdezhiduduishehuishengchanlifazhandeyanzhongzhiai。zhidaoshangshijizhongye,jiuxizangyiranchuyujidufengbiluohoudezhuangtai,shengchanfazhanwubihuanman。xiandaigongshangyenanmizongji、xiandaishehuishiyeyipiankongbai,chuantongnongmuyeshengchanjiqiluohou。nongyeshengchandixiaojiandan,zhuyaonongyequrengzaishiyongmuli、muchugengdi,shouchengjinweizhongzide4zhi5bei;muyeshengchanyuanshicufang,diyuziranzaihainenglidixia;shougongyegongjuhejishucucaojianlou,chanpinshuliangjiqiyouxian;chuantongshangmaobuduanweisuo,yiwuyiwujiaoyifangshishengxing。jiuxizangguangdanongnucanzaoyapo,yibubiti,shibuguofu,shengchanjijixingbugao,gaigeshengchanjishudezhudongxinghechuangzaoxingyanzhongquefa,nalai“kendingziji”de“xingfu”。zaizheiluohoufengbideshehuili,huanglunbaituowuduirendetongzhi,shenhuziyoulaodong,jingjideshehuijiefangzhinengshitianfangyetandeshenhua。

AG真人zongjiaoyapianmazuirenmin,zhengzhitongzhiyaponongnu。youshangcengsenglvjituanheshisuguizushililianhezhuanzhengdezhengjiaoheyidezhengzhijiegou,shijiuxizangfengjiannongnuzhidudezhengzhibiaoxianxingshihezhengzhiyunxingmoshi,shijiuxizangzhengzhizhidudexianzhutezheng。qizhong,youyizongjiaoshiliweisheng。shangcengsenglvjituanjishijiuxizangnongnuzhujiejidedianxingdaibiao,youshijiuxizangzhengzhitongzhijituandehexinshili,yongyouwukepididezhengzhi、jingjiziyuan,quanfangweizhudaohejuedingzhejiuxizangdeyiqie,baokuorenmendewuzhihejingshenshenghuo。weiyushangcengsenglvjituanjinzitadingduandeshijizhengjiaodaquanyuyishendedalai,tazuoweijiuxizangnongnuzhujiejidezongdaibiao,bujinshizangchuanfojiaogelupaideshouling,haishijiuxizangdifangzhengfudezuigaolingdaoren,yongyouzhezhigaowushangdequanli,bujinzaiwuzhishangjuedingzhejiuxizangcangshengdeyiqie,hailiyongrenmenduizongjiaodemixinshirenzaisixiangshangyongyuanchuyubeinuyidezhuangtai。keyishuo,zaizhengjiaoheyidefengjiannongnuzhixia,yidalaiweishoudeshangcengtongzhijituanwanquanlongduanlejiuxizangdezhengzhiquanli,tamenchongfenliyongshouzhongdefengjiantequanhezongjiaoshenquan,tongguobaolitongzhihesixiangqianzhi,duinongnushishicankudezhengzhiyapo。meiguozangxuejiamei·geersitanjianruidizhichu,“zaijiuxizang,shehuihezhengfudianjiyuzongjiaomubiaoyuxingweilingjiayiqiedejiazhixitongzhishang”,“zongjiaodequanlihetequanjidasiyuanzaizunaojinbufangmianbanyanlezhuyaojiaose”,chengwei“xizangshehuijinbudechenzhongzhigu”,“zhengshiyouyuquanminzuxinjiaohezongjiaoshoulingzhizhangzhengjiaodaquanzheiyiyinsu,daozhijiuxizangsangshileshiyingbuduanbianhuadehuanjinghexingshidenengli”。guangdanongnuwulifankangzheiyichirendezhidu,yifangmian,“beiyaposhengling”(guangdanongnu)zaizongjiaoyapiandemazuixia,ganshouzhe“xuhuandexingfu”,zaizhei“wuqingshijie”lixunqiujietuo,chongjingzhelaishidemeihao;lingyifangmian,mianduizhengjiaoheyidegaoyatongzhi,“haibixuchengrenheshoukenzijizhibeizhipei、beitongzhi、beizhanyouquanshishangtiandeenzhun”。zaizheishuangzhongyapodeshehuili,huanglunzhengzhiquanli,shenhuzhengzhiziyou,zhengzhijiefangzhinengshiyaobukejideshenhua。

gaitianhuandidebiange

fengjiannongnuzhizuoweiyizhongchaojingjideqiangzhiboxuezhidu,yiranyurenleiwenmingfazhanjinchenggegeburu。xiandaihuafazhanzaoyichengweirenleishehuifazhandezhuliuhequshi,erjiuxizangzhengjiaoheyidefengjiannongnuzhixiafeirendezhengzhiyapo、cankudejingjiboxue、yemanderenshenpohai,bujinshirenleiwenmingshishangzuiheianzuixuexingdeyimu,erqiechengweizuaishehuijinbudechenzhongzhigu,zouxiangzhongjieshilishidebiran。raner,youyudiyudefengbidengziranyinsuyijilishi、shehuidengyinsudejiaocuoyingxiang,yigezaishijiedaduoshuguojiahediquzaoyijuejidefengjiannongnuzhihezhengjiaoheyizhidu,jingranyierzheheyidexingshiwangudicunzaiyushangshiji50niandaideshijiewuji。zaizheiyangdezhiduxia,nongnuzhujiejideqiongshejiyu,shiyinongnubeicankunandeshenghuohejiushehuihaowuxiwangdeqiantuweidaijiade。jiuxizangzaiheianzhilushangyibubuhuaxiangshenyuan。“zheizhongzhidubenshenbushizhidezhongshideduixiang,ershijiyingdangshoudaobishitongshiyouyijingshoudaobishidecunzaizhuangtai。”zonghengkaochalishihexianshi、guojiheguoneixingshi,bianbunanfaxian,jiuxizangzhengjiaoheyidefengjiannongnuzhiyibuzaishiyingrenleishehuiwenmingjinbudefazhanyaoqiu,chengweilishidefandong,xingjiangjiumu。biangezheiyangdeshehuizhiduchengweishehuilishifazhandebiranyaoqiu。

“dangjiuzhiduzuoweixiancundeshijiezhidutongxinshengdeshijiejinxingdouzhengdeshihou,jiuzhidufandeshishijielishixingdecuowu,erbushigerendecuowu,yinerjiuzhidudemiewangyeshibeijuxingde”,jiuxizangdeshangcengfandongjituantaotuobulezheiyangdelishisuming。fengjiannongnuzhujiejiweiweihujideliyi,helishishangsuoyoufandongmeiluojiejiyiyang,jibiandashiyiqu,yebuhuiziyuanzhudongdituichulishiwutai。1959nian3yue,yishisishidalaiweitouzidexizangshangcengfandongjituannilishichaoliuerdong,weishizhengjiaoheyidefengjiannongnuzhidu“zhangqibugai,yongyuanbugai”,shudianwangzu,beipanguojia、beipanminzu,jingxiangdiguozhuyimaishenqiurong,yuguojifanhuashilihangxieyiqi,gongkaisihui《shiqitiaoxieyi》,hanranfadongyitumou“xizangduli”weimudedewuzhuangpanluan,zoushangyitiaozijueyurenmin、zijueyulishidebuguilu。dalaijituandaoxingnishi,zhishiqiaoxianglefengjiannongnuzhidesangzhong,quanranzudangbulelishiqianjindebufa。cishicike,pingxipanluan、jinxinggaigechengweibaiwannongnudereqieqipan。zhongguogongchandangshunyinglishichaoliuherenminqipan,zuochu“bianpingpanbiangaige”dezhanlvejuece。zairenminqunzhongdeguangfanzhichihejijicanyuxia,pingxipanluanqudewanquanshengli;tongshi,yichanghonghonglielie、bolanzhuangkuodeminzhugaigeyundongyezaixizangdadixunsuzhankai。

“chedidegeming、quanrenleidejiefang,bushiwutuobangshidemengxiang,queqiedishuo,bufendechunzhengzhidegeming,haobuchufandashazhizhudegeming,caishiwutuobangshidemengxiang”。meiyourentianshengyuanyibeinuyi、shouyapo,minzhugaigefuhexizangguangdarenmindegenbenliyihezhenshiyuanwang,shigezuqunzhongziyouyizhidezhongshibiaoda,zheibushiduijiuxizangdifangzhengfudejiandanqudi,gengbushichuantongyiyishangdedifangzhengquangengdie,ershiyichangweidaderenleijiefangyundong。tacuihuileshijieshangzuiyemanzuicankuzuiluohoudezhengjiaoheyidefengjiannongnuzhidu,yicuikulaxiuzhishichedijiangjiushehuidefeixuyiping,qiufengsaoluoyeyibandangdijiuxizangyiliuxialaidewunizhuoshui,baiwannongnuhenulizaizhengzhi、jingjiherenzishenfazhandenggegefangmianhuodequanmianjiefang,jibenrenquandedaogenbenbaozhang。

AG真人yizhengzhijiefangweiqianti,yijingjideshehuijiefangweijichu,yirenzishenjiefangweimude,xizangminzhugaigesaochulerenmenshixianziyoufazhandezhiduzhangai,zasuiletaozaibaiwannongnushenshangdezhuanzhijiasuo,shirenleijiefangshishangdezhuanglipianzhang。zhengzhishang,jiuxizangzhengjiaoheyizhengzhizhidudechedifeichu,yiweizhefengjiannongnuzhujiejituichulishiwutai,sandalingzhudeheiantongzhishouzhongzhengqin;yiweizhexizanggezurenminbuzaizaoshouzongjiaoshenquanhefengjiantequandeshuangzhongyapo,jiejitongzhihezhengzhinuyibufucunzai;yiweizhezairenminminzhuzhuanzhengdezhengquanjichushang,baiwannongnufanshendangjiazuozhu,chengweixizangdezhuren、guojiadezhuren,yuquanguogezurenminyiyangxiangyouxianfahefalvfuyudeminzhuzhengzhiquanli,buzaishizongjiaoyapianmazuixiahuishuohuadegongju,buzaishizhengzhiyapoxianilaishunshoudechaba、duiqiong、langsheng。jingjishang,fengjiannongnuzhutudisuoyouzhibeichedifeichu,baiwannongnuyongyouleshengchanziliao,huodelemanzuzishenfazhansuoxudejibenwuzhitiaojian,tebieshisuizhenongnuhenulirenshenyifuguanxidejiechu、renminshehuizhutidiweidequeli,laodongzhe“congzijiyiqiandefazhanzhongjietuochulai,zhijieweirendejiefanggongzuo”,shehuishengchanlidedaojidashifang。bansuizhezhengzhijiefanghejingjideshehuijiefang,baiwannongnuhenulihuodeleshehuizhuyiguojiagongminsuoyongyoudeyiqiezhengzhihejingjiquanli,weirenshixianziyouquanmianfazhanpupingledaolu、kaipilekongjian,renzaiziyoulaodongzhongganshoudaozijidebenzhililiang,laodongdebenzhidedaoquanmianqueren,ziyouerquanmianfazhandequanlidedaozunzhonghebaozhang。baiwanfanshennongnudangjiazuozhu,manhuaireqingditoushenshehuizhuyixinxizangdeagzhenrenzhong。

quanmianfazhandeweilai

AG真人xizangminzhugaigeshirenleijiefangshishangdefengbei,errenleicongbiranwangguojinruziyouwangguodelichengbingfeiyicuerjiu,zheishiyigemanzhangdelishiguocheng,shi“yishengchanlidejudazengzhanghegaodufazhanweiqianti”de。makesicengshenkedizhichu: “zhiyoudangrenrenshidaozishen‘guyoudeliliang’shishehuililiang,bingbazheizhongliliangzuzhiqilaierbuzaibashehuililiangyizhengzhililiangdexingshitongzijifenlideshihou……rendejiefangcainengwancheng。”renleidechedijiefang,yilaiyushengchanlidegaodufazhanheyirenweizhongxindeshehuiquanmianjinbu,baituowuduirendetongzhi。

AG真人jiuchigaotaiqiyuleitu,renleijiefangdehongweimubiaoshiyaofenjieduanlaishixiande。minzhugaigekaiqilexizangshehuixiandaihuafazhandejincheng。60nianlai,zaidangzhongyangdeqinqieguanhuaihequanguorenmindedalizhiyuanxia,xizanggezurenmintuanjieyizhi、ruiyijinqu、wanqiangfendou,shixianleshehuizhiduhejingjishehuifazhandelishixingkuayue,zaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyixiandaihuafazhandaolushangkuobuqianjin,gexiangshiyequdelingshirenzhumudechengjiu。jintiandexizang,shehuidajuhexiewending,jingjichixujiankangfazhan,minzhufazhibuduantuijin,tongyizhanxianfazhanzhuangda,xuanchuanwenhuachengxiaoxianzhu,shengtaihuanjingbaochilianghao,shehuishiyequanmianjinbu,minzutuanjiechixugonggu,zongjiaoshixianhemuhexie,gaigekaifangzhubushenhua,yuanzanggongzuolidujiada,dangdeagzhenrenquanmianjiaqiang。zhengshiyiminzhugaigeweiqiantihejichu,zhongguogongchandanglingdaoxizanggezurenminzaijiuxizangdefeixushang,kaiqileshixianrendeziyouquanmianfazhandexinjiyuan,chaozherenleichedijiefangmaichujianshibufa。

raner,danglingdaoxizanggezurenminqudedeweidachengjiuquebeidalaijituansiyidihui。agzhenrendaoshilaikankan,tamenzhei60nianyounaxie“weidachengjiu”?shisishidalaiziwuzhuangpanluanshibaiyihou,taowangyiguotaxiang,quemeiyouyitianbuzuozhehuidaofupizhengjiaoheyidefengjiannongnuzhidudemimeng。60nianlai,zaiguojifanhuashilidesongyonghezhichixia,dalaijituanweiraosuowei“xizangduli”douquanzi,shierguchui“zhongjiandaolu”,shierjiaoxiao“gaoduzizhi”,xuyubutingdicongshizhefenliezuguodezuiehuodong。zaizongjiaojie,pinpinzhizaoshiduan,yanzhongpohuaizangchuanfojiaojieneibudehexiehemu;zaishehuishang,jiaosuo、guhuo、shandongsengsuqunzhong,raoluanshehuizhixu、pohuaishehuiwending;zaiguojishang,waiqushishi、xinkoucihuang,weiguojifanhuashiliyaoqinahan,duidanglingdaorenminjinxingdeweidachuangzao、duixinxizangqudedefantianfudibianhuajijinwumiezhinengshi。shishiwushucizhengming,shisishidalaishitumou“xizangduli”defenliezhuyizhengzhijituandezongtouzi,shiguojifanhuashilidezhongshigongju,shizaixizangzhizaoshehuidongluandezonggenyuan,shizunaozangchuanfojiaojianlizhengchangzhixudezuidazhangai,shipizhezongjiaowaiyihuozangluanjiaodezhengke。60nianchumaiguojia、chumaiminzu,60nianlijingpandao、fanfuwuchang,60niandaoxingnishi、zuixingleilei,shisishidalaijiqijituandesuozuosuoweiyurenleiwenmingjinbubeidaoerchi,zaoyibeilaolaodingzailishichiruzhushang,bijiangyichouwannian。

AG真人xizangminzhugaigeyijingguoqu60nian,zaoyifanshenjiefangdebaiwannongnuzaizhongguogongchandanglingdaoxia,buduanchaozheshixianziyouquanmianfazhandedaolufenyongqianjin。wangjilishijiuyiweizhebeipan。huishouguoqu,zhanwangweilai,agzhenrenjinianminzhugaige,jiushiyaojinianrenleijiefangshishangdezheiyiweidachuangju,jiushiyaojiashenduixinjiuxizangbinghuoliangzhongtiandeshenkerenshi,congerjifagezurenmindeangyangdouzhi,gengjiajinmidituanjiezaiyixijinpingtongzhiweihexindedangzhongyangzhouwei,fenlipuxiezhonghuaminzuweidafuxingzhongguomengxizangpianzhang,rangyigetuanjiemeilihexiexingfudeshehuizhuyixinxizangangranyilizaishijiewuji,zairenleijiefangjinchengzhongbuduanduoquyigeyouyigeweidashengli。

中共西藏自治区委员会党校 西藏自治区行政学院 保留一切文字图形权利 藏ICP备09000421
主办单位:AG真人_平台首页 制作单位: 中共西藏自治区委员会党校
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