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试论西藏民主改革与人民价值观的变迁

发布日期: 2018-03-26    作者:谢勇   来源:AG真人_平台首页 0

minzhugaigeyilai,xizangshehuikuayuefengjianshehui、zibenzhuyishehui,zhijiejinrushehuizhuyishehui,congci,xizangrenminfanshenzuoleguojiaheshehuidezhuren。raner,xizangshehuiderenminzhuquanwentiyizhishoudaoguoneiwaishehuideguangfanguanzhu。60nianlai,guoneiwaifandongshilibuduanxianqixizangshehuiderenminzhuquanwenti,gongji1959nianshixingdexizangminzhugaige,feibanghewuxiandangheguojiazaixizangshehuishixingdeshehuizhuyizhidu。yinci,shulifenxixizangminzhugaigeqianhourenminjiazhiguandegenbenxingzhuanbian,duiyujiaoyuyindaoxizanggezurenminqunzhonggengjiajiandinggenzhezhongguogongchandangzou,yegengjiarentongdangzaixizangshixingdeshehuizhuyizhidujuyouzhongdayiyi。

AG真人xizangminzhugaigeqiande“renmin”jiazhiguan

AG真人minzhugaigeqiandejiuxizang,shixingdeshizhengjiaoheyidefengjiannongnuzhidu,nongnuzhujiejizhangwozhexizangdezhengquan,boduolenongnudeyiqiequanli,bingqienongnuzhuzhangwozhenongnudeshengshadaquan,nongnushenzhilianzuorendequanlidoumeiyou。zaijingjishangshouboxue,zaizhengzhishangshouyapo,zaishentishangshouzhemo,zheixiedoushifengjiannongnuzhujiejidetequan,yijinongnuzhujiejide“renmin”jiazhiguan。zhongguogongchandangzaixizangshixingminzhugaige,zhizaituifanjiuxizangfengjiannongnushehuidecankutongzhi,jixizangguangdanongnuyiziyou,shitamenzhenzhengzuozijidezhuren。dangzhongguogongchandangdailingxizangrenminshixianjiefang,shixingzhongguogongchandangsuochangdaoderenminjiazhiguanshi,guowaiyiqiefandongshiliyezaimanmazhongguogongchandangmeiyouguanxinxizangrenmin,zheijiubunankanchu,xifangshehuisuochangdaoderenminjiazhiguan,tabingbushichaojiejide,bingbushiweihusuoyourengenbenliyide,tashiweihuzichanjiejiguyouliyide,tamensuochangdaoderenminjiazhiguanzaililunheshijianshangshixiangweibeide。jiuxizangdifangzhengfushiduoluode,shixifangdiguozhuyidefuyong,shiweibeiguangdaxizangrenminliyide。jinguanjiuxizangsuoshixingdeshehuizhidushiburendaode,danshitongzhijiejihaishiyaojilidiweihu,henmingxiantamenchangdaode“renmin”jiazhiguanbushizhenzhengdiweileguangdarenminqunzhonggenbenliyide,ershiweileweihunongnuzhujiejiliyide,shinongnuzhujiejidejiazhiguan。

makesi、engesisuochudeshidaiyuxizangminzhugaigedeshidaishiwanquanbutongde,danshitamenzhuazhuledangshishidaidetexing,zheijiuzhuazhulejiejuerenminjiazhiguandeguanjian。tamenshenkedijieshileneigeshidaiwuchanjiejisuochudeeliehuanjing。makesi、engesizhihoude100duonianlai,guojishehuifengyunbianhuan,renmensuochiderenminjiazhiguanyeyouhendadefazhan,guanyurenmindejiazhiguanyijingshejidaoshehuidefangfangmianmian,danshi,makesizhuyiderenminjiazhiguanrengranshijiejuedangjinshehuirenminjiazhiguanwentidefangfa,shiagzhenrenrenshijiuxizang“renmin”jiazhiguandezhinan。zaishehuizhuyishehui,lingdaojiejibushiboxuejieji,zheigejiejibaokuoyigongren、nongmin、zhishifenziweizhudelaodongqunzhong,tamenzhijiandequanlishixiangtongde,shibuboxuerendezhenzhengpingdeng。jianyanzhi,shehuizhuyishehuiderenminjiazhiguanshiyizhongxindejiazhiguan,shizaizhijiefoudingjiuxizangfengjiannongnuzhidujichushangderenminjiazhiguan。zheizhongjiazhiguanmeiyourenhedetequan,genbenshangfoudinglerenduirendeyizhongboxue,taduidaipingdengshishishishangde,erbushixingshishangde。

zhongguogongchandanglingdaoxizanggezurenminjinxingdexizangminzhugaige,chedituifanlefengjiannongnuzhi,shijiefangbaiwannongnudeyiciweidageming。youneirongguanzhi,shifandifanfengjiandeyiciminzhugeming;youbenzhiguanzhi,shituifanboxuezhidu,zaixizangjianlishehuizhuyizhidudebiyaozhunbei。yinci,xizangminzhugaigeshishixianzhongguogongchandangrenminjiazhiguandeyicigeming,jiejuedeshibaiwannongnuhuodeziyouquanli。yaoshuoxizangrenminderenminjiazhiguanwenti,zhuyaoshifangzaiguangdarenminqunzhongdelichangshanglaijiang,xizangdejiefangqishizhishiguangdanongnuhenulijiejidedajiefang。yinci,zheicaishixizangzuishijiderenminjiazhiguan。

xizangminzhugaigezhongderenminjiazhiguan

zaixizangminzhugaigedeshijijinchengzhong,zhongguogongchandangshishidehenduozhengcedoufanyinglezhongguogongchandangguanxinxizangrenminqunzhongdezhenchengyuanwang,fanyinglezhongguogongchandangweixizangzuiguangdarenminmouliyidegenbenchufadian,fanyinglezhongguogongchandangzunzhongxizangrenmindexuanze。zhengrumaozedongtongzhisuoshuo: “shaoshuminzudiqudegaige,shiyijianzhongdadeshiqing,bixujinshenduidai,zheizhonggaigebixuyoushaoshuminzuzijilaijiejue。”anzhaomakesizhuyideguandian,dangshehuijibenmaodundadaoshifenjianruideshihou,jiuhuixingchengquanjuxingdeweiji,zheiyangjiuhuibaofageming,suoyigemingdefashengshiyoutiaojianheshijide。huanyanzhi,“zhiyoudang‘xiaceng’buyuanzhaojiushenghuo,er‘shangceng’yebunengzhaojiushenghuotongzhixiaqudeshihou”,gemingdeshijicaihuidaolai,congershenglicainengdaolai。xizangminzhugaigeqian,xizangcunzaiyanzhongdejiejiduili,beitongzhijiejiduiyuneizhongfeirendeshenghuofangshigandaoshenetongjue。danshi,youyuxizangteshudelishizhuangkuang,dangzhongyangjiangzuguotongyiheminzutuanjiefangzailezhongyaoweizhi,jijiuxizangdifangzhengfuheshangcengrenshiyichongfendekaolvshijian,naixindidengdaitamenjuewu。shanggeshiji60niandai,zhongyangzhengfuxiangxizangdifangzhengfubiaoshi,zaiyidingdeshijiannei,keyibujinxingminzhugaige。dangzhongyangcaiquzheixiezhengce,chongfentixianledangshizhanzairenmindelichangshang,hongyangzhongguogongchandangderenminjiazhiguan。danshi,xizangshangcengfandongshilijianggongchandangdezheizhongdengdaishiweiruanruo,qituyikaoxifangdiguozhuyideshililaidadaofenliezuguodemude,yibaocunjiuxizangcankudefengjiannongnuzhidu,jinerbaohuzijizaixizangdeliyi。xizangshangcengfandongshilizai1959nian3yue10rifadonglepanluan,zheizhongpanluanyanzhongyingxianglexizangrenminhequanguogezurenmindegongtongliyi,suoyi,zaodaolexizangguangdarenmin、aiguozhishifenzidefandui。xizangrenminpeihezhongguorenminjiefangjunzaijiaoduanshijianneipingxilepanluan,zheiyechongfendaibiaolexizangrenmindeyuanwang。congxizanghepingjiefangdaoshixingminzhugaigezhengzheng8nian,zaizhei8nianzhong,zhongguogongchandanglingdaoderenminjiefangjunhejinzangganbu,shizhongtongxizangdenongmuminshenghuozaiyiqi,shizhongweitamenmouliyi,baiwannongnuganjuedaogongchandangshitamendeqinren,yuguoquxiangbi,tamengengjiarenshidaolexizangfengjiannongnuzhidudecanku,jinerjifalexizangrenminminzhugaigedereqing,zheitongyangyeshizhongguogongchandanghongyangrenminjiazhiguandejieguo。

genjuxizangdeshijiqingkuang,dangzhongyangzaixizangzhidinglekexuehelidefangzhenzhengce,ji“bianpingpan,biangaige”defangzhen,chongfendiaodongguangdarenminqunzhong,chedituifanxizangnongnuzhidu。xizangdeminzhugaige,zhuyaoshiweihulezhanrenkoujuedaduoshudenongnudeliyi。zhengrumakesi、engesizai《gongchandangxuanyan》zhongzhichu: “guoqudeyiqieyundongdoushishaoshurendehuozheweishaoshurenmouliyideyundong。wuchanjiejideyundongshijuedaduoshurende、weijuedaduoshurenmouliyidedulideyundong。”xizangrenminzaiminzhugaigezhongrenshidaolezijideliliang,suoyigaigeshifenshunli。jinguanfandongfenziyiminzuhezongjiaodemingyilaijinxingpanluanhuodong,danshitamenquedebudaoxizangrenminqunzhongdezhichi,zheiyebijiangjuedingzheichangpanluanhuiyipanluanfenzishibaiergaozhong。

zaixizangminzhugaigejinchengzhong,dangzhongyangzhanzailishidegaodu,chongfenkaolvxizangshehuigejiecengdeliyi,zhidinglehelidezhengce。genjuxizangdeshijiqingkuang,shishiqiushizhidinglebutongdezhengce。biru,duiyuguizulaijiang,zhiyaobucanjiapanluan,qicaichancaiqushumaidezhengce,fanzhi,zeyilvmeishou。zheixiezhengcebujinyouliyuxizangrenmingenbenliyi,gengyouliyuxizangminzhugaigeshunlijinxing。zaixizangdeminzhugaigejinchengzhong,zhongguogongchandangcongxizangrenmindegenbenliyichufa,chuchuweirenminzhexiang,zheiyeshizhongguogongchandangzaixizangjianxingrenminjiazhiguandexianmingtixian。

xizangminzhugaigehouderenminjiazhiguan

AG真人minzhugaigeyilai,xizangshehuifashenglefantianfudidebianhua,zhongguogongchandangzaixizangderenminjiazhiguandedaolezhenzhengdeshixian。duiyuxizangrenminlaishuo,wulunnizuoweigongminhaishizuoweiyigeminzu,dangheguojiadoujiyuleguangfandezizhiheminzhuquanli。

conggerendejiaodulaikan,xizangdemeiyigerendoushishoufalvbaohude。xizangminzhugaigefeichulefengjiannongnuzhidu,feichulenongnuhenongnuzhudeyifuguanxi,nongnuyehuodeletudiheshengkou,huodelerenshenziyou。zaijingjishang,tamenbuzaishounongnuzhujiejideboxue,tongshizijiyongyoushengchanziliao,keyizaizijidetudishangzhongzijixiangzhongdedongxi,guoshangleanjuleyedeshenghuo。zaizhengzhishang,minzhugaigezhihou,jiejiguanxiyefashenglebianhua,suizheshengchanziliaosuoyouzhidebiange,jingjijichufashengleshenkebianhua,nongnuzhujiejiyijingbufucunzai。xizangminzhugaigezhihou,nongnuhenulichengweishehuidezhuren,xiangshouzheyibanputonggongmindequanli。zaiwenhuashang,nongnuhenuliyouleshoujiaoyudequanli。zaijiuxizang,zhiyoushaobufenrenyoushoujiaoyudequanli,biruguizu、lama,yibanpingminjihuxiangshoubudaoshoujiaoyudequanli。erxizangminzhugaigezhihou,nongnu、nulijiqizinvyenengshangxuedushu,dangheguojiafeichangguanxinxizangrenmindejiaoyuwenti,jinxinglemianfeijiaoyu,bujinjianliqilexiaoxue、zhongxue,haiyoudaxue。zaizongjiaoxinyangshang,zhenzhengshixianlezongjiaoxinyangziyou。minzhugaigeqian,xizangdezongjiaoshidaiyoufengjianboxuetequande,erminzhugaigezhihou,xiaochudeshizongjiaodetequan,erbushizongjiaobenshen。makesicengshuoguo: “dangdangederenyijingbuzaibazongjiaodangzuogongshierdangzuosishilaiduidaishi,tazaizhengzhishangyejiucongzongjiaoshangjiefangchulaile。”xizangzaijinxingminzhugaigezhihou,xizangguangdanongnuheyibanlaodongqunzhongdezongjiaoxinyangjiucongzhengzhideyapozhongjiefangchulaile,bazongjiaokanzuoshizijideshi,yejiucongbenzhishanghuodelezongjiaodexinyangziyou。zaishenghuoshang,xizangrenmindeshenghuoshuipingyoulehendadetigao,renmindeshentisuzhiyoumingxiangaibian,shoumingyeyousuozengjia,zheiyeshizhongguogongchandangzaixizangjianxingrenminjiazhiguandeyouyitixian。

congzhengtidejiaodulaikan,xizangzuoweishaoshuminzujujidizhiyi,zhenggezangminzudoudedaoqitaminzudezunzhong。minzhugaigezhihou,feichulefengjiannongnuzhi,zaixizangjianliqilerenminminzhuzhuanzhengdeminzuquyuzizhizhidu,rangzangzutongbaozijiguanliziji,zuozijizhenzhengdezhuren。minzhugaigezhihou,xizangzaijicengyoujihuadijianlilegejirenminzhengquan,tongguominzhuxuanjushixianminzhudequanli。1965nian,xizangzizhiquzhengshichengli,congci,xizangrenminyoulezizhidequanli,xizangzizhiquzhengfushixizangrenminzijidezhengfu,tachulexingshiyibandeguojiazhengquanwai,haiyougaodudezizhiquan,takeyigenjuzijideshijiqingkuanglailinghuoshixingzhongyangzhengfudejuece,zijiguanlibendidewenhua、jiaoyu、weishengdengshiwu,keyishiyongbenminzudeyuyanlaijinxingbangong,dengdeng。weilebaozhengminzuquyuzizhizhidudeshunlishixian,dangheguojiaweixizangpeiyangledapidezangzuganbu,zhenzhengzuodaoleyizangzuganbuweizhu,shixianlexizangrenmindedangjiazuozhu。zheiyeshizhongguogongchandangzaixizangjianxingrenminjiazhiguandezhongyaotixian。

AG真人zongshangsuoshu,xizangminzhugaigejuebushizhongyangzhengfuduixizangdewuqingtongzhi,ershiweihuxizangrenminzhutidiweideyichanggeming。duoshaonianlai,xizangzheipianmeilidetudidoushidiguozhuyixiangqinzhande,danshishizhongdoumeiyouchenggong,yinweizheibeihouyoujibaiwanxizangrenmindezhichi。youyuxizangteshudediyutiaojian,teshudequqing,shijieshanghenduobieyouyongxinderenshizhongxiangbaxizangcongzuguodehuaibaozhongfenlichuqu,fangdaxizangrenmindezongjiaoxinyanghuorenminjiazhiguanwenti。tamensuoshuodejiazhiguan,shijishangjiushixifangdepushijiazhi,shixifangdeqiangquanzhengzhi。tamendazhe“renminjiazhiguan”deqihao,quganshebieguodeneizhengwaijiao,zaochengbieguodeguoneihunluan,dadaodianfubieguozhengquandemude。guowaifandongshilidezuizhongmudejiushiyaobaxizangcongzhongguodebantuzhongfenlichuqu,zheishijueduibuyunxude。zhongguogongchandangjianchirenminjiazhiguan,xiangguangdaxizangrenminqunzhongjiangqingchuagzhenrendangzaixizangjianchi“yirenminweizhongxin”defazhansixiang,chedi、youlidifanjiguoneiwaifandongshiliduiagzhenrenguoshehuizhuyizhidudeedugongji。

中共西藏自治区委员会党校 西藏自治区行政学院 保留一切文字图形权利 藏ICP备09000421
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