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十四世达赖否定藏传佛教寺院民主改革成就的图谋注定失败

发布日期: 2018-03-26    作者:达宝次仁   来源:AG真人_平台首页 0

AG真人 minzhugaigeqiandejiuxizangrengchuyuzhengjiaoheyizhiduxia,zangchuanfojiaodulandaquan,miaoyucongsheng,sengnichengqun,xianghuoliaorao,biaomianyifufofachangshengdejingxiang,shizezongjiaotequanhengxing,xinyangxuanzeboduo,jiaopaizhengdoujilie,yuzongjiaoxinyangziyoudelinianbeidaoerchi。xinxizangbujinqudilezongjiaozaizhengzhi、jingji、wenhua、jiaoyu、sifadenglingyudefengjiantequan,haidapolezangchuanfojiaosimiaoneibudejiejiyapozhidu,zaishijianzhongbuduanwanshankexuedesimiaoguanlitizhi,youhualesimiaodegonggongagzhenren,jianlilezongjiaowenwubaohuxiufuzhidu,shixianlesimiaosengnishehuibaozhangtizhidequanfugai。raner,shisishidalaiquewangchengshehuizhuyixinxizang“meiyouzongjiaoxinyangziyou”,batatongzhixiadejiuxizangmiaohuichengzongjiaohexie、zhongshengpingdengde“xianggelila”,zheishigongranduijiuxizangshenquantongzhidemeihua,shiduilishideyanzhongwaiquheduizangchuanfojiaosiyuanminzhugaigechengjiudefouding。

AG真人yi、minzhugaigechedifeichulezangchuanfojiaodefengjiantequan

jiuxizangdelishizhaoshishehui: yanxulejibainiandezhengjiaoheyi、senglvzhuanzhengdefengjiannongnuzhishehui,shidaozhixizangzouxiangfengbi、luohouheshuaibaidejiasuo。minzhugaigeqian,xizanggongyousimiao2600duozuo、sengzhong11wanyuren,sengzhongzhandangshirenkoudeyueshifenzhiyi,zailasa3.7wanduochengzhenrenkouzhong,jiuyou1.6wanduomingsengni。yibaneryan,zongjiaochangsuohejiaozhirenyuandezuoyongshimanzuxinjiaoqunzhongdezongjiaoshenghuoxuqiu,rucipangdadesiyuanjituanhesenglvrenyuandecunzai,shifouweichuncuidexinyangxuqiuhezongjiaoshenghuo?1904niandaoguolasadeyingguosuijunjizheaidemeng·kandelejiuxiedao: “zheigedifangshixingdeshifengjianzhidu。lamashitaishanghuang,nongminshitamendenuli”“qiangdadesenglvshilizhangguanyiqie。jishishifotuobenren,meiyousenglvyewunengweili”。zangxuejiamei·geersitangengshidiandaolewentisuozai,“zaixizang,shehuihezhengfudianjiyuzongjiaomubiaoyuxingweilingjiayiqiedejiazhixitongzhishang”“zongjiaodequanlihetequanjidasiyuanzaizunaojinbufangmianbanyanlezhuyaojiaose”。yinci,zongjiaohesiyuanjituanshi“xizangshehuijinbudechenzhongzhigu”“zhengshiyouyuquanminzuxinjiaohezongjiaoshoulingzhizhangzhengjiaodaquanzheiyiyinsu,daozhixizangsangshileshiyingbuduanbianhuadehuanjinghexingshidenengli”。

AG真人zangchuanfojiaosiyuanzailidaifengjianzhongyangzhengfuhexizanggedifangshilidefuzhi、zhichiheliyongxia,fazhanchengweidulidezhengzhi、jingjishiti,yongyouzhezhuduozhengzhitequanhepangdadejingjishili。tongshi,siyuanyudifangzhengzhishilijinmijiehe,zaizhengzhishangxingchenglezhengjiaoheyizhidu,siyuanyusengsuguanyuan、shixiguizuyidaogouchengletongzhixizangdesandalingzhujituan,dangshizongjiaoxinyangyijingbeiquanlihetanyuniuquchengweijixingguaitai。

jingguominzhugaige,zaizhengjiaoheyizhiduyanhuxiadezongjiaofengjiantequanheboxuezhidubeichedifensui。xizangzizhiqugongweizai1959nianminzhugaigeshimingquezhichu: “bixuzaiminzhugaigeguochengzhong,chedijiejuesimiaodetequanheboxuewenti。”“zaisimiaojinxinggongzuoshi,yingjianjuezhixingzongjiaoxinyangziyouzhengce,baohuaiguoshoufadesimiaohezongjiaorenshi,baohuyuanyixinjiaode,yebaohubuyuanyixinjiaode,bazunzhongxinjiaoziyouyufeichusimiaodeboxuezhiduhetequanqubiekailai”,bingmingquelesimiaogaigedejibenzhengcezhiyi,shigongkaixuanbuqudifeichu“shitiao”zongjiaotequanheboxuezhidu。

AG真人er、minzhugaigechedifeichulezangchuanfojiaodeqiangpoxinyang

jiuxizangdifangfadianzaizongjiaoxinyangfangmianjuyoumingxiandeqiangpoxing,guidingzhiyouzangchuanfojiaoshiweiyiyinggaibeixinfengbingtuixingde,qitarenhebutongleixingdezongjiaojunbudechongbaihexinyang。liru,《shiliufadian》disantiaoguiding: “anzhaodawangzhilingsuopaiqianzhidifangguanli……qimudejiweiyifushihexinfengfofaweizhu,bugaijiaopaizhiguan,bugaixintazong。”zheixiedoushuomingjiuxizangdifangfadianzaizongjiaoxinyangfangmianjuyoumingxiandeqiangpoxing。juminzhugaigeqianduizhebangsilianggekangcunde387mingsengrendiaocha,yinniansuixiaobeisonglairusichujiadeyou126ren,beisiyuanlepaisengchalaichujiadeyou31ren,ziyuanchujiaweisengdezhiyou6ren,jinzhan2%。

duijiuxizangdezongjiaoxinyangziyouzhuangkuang,qianzhongyangminzudaxuefuxiaozhang、zangzuxuezhexiraonimajiaoshouyezuolezheiyangdezongjie: yishinongnubeipozhiyingneizhongyijiashutongdechouyitongrusidanglamadesengcha;ershiyoudelingzhuweixuyuanhuohaiyuanxinjiansimiao,kongwurenweisenghuosisengguoshao,qiangpobaixingweiseng;sanshiyixienongnuyinshenghuosuopo,budebusongzinvrusiweisengni,erzheixiesengnibianchengweisizhongdenuli,bingwuduoshaoshijiancanjiazhenzhengdezongjiaohuodong。ciwai,youxieyuanyidangsengnideren,youyujiuxizangzhiyeqishiyuanguyoubeijuzhimenwai,rutiejiang、tufudeng。suoyizaiminzhugaigezhiqian,shijishangbingwuzhenzhengzongjiaoxinyangziyoukeyan。

minzhugaigeduizheiyiweifanjibenrenquandexianxiangjinxinglechedisuqing,feichusimiaoxiangqunzhongtanpai“sengcha”dezhidu,jinzhisimiaoqiangpoqunzhongrusidangsengni。zai《zhonghuarenmingongheguoxianfa》zhong,zongjiaoxinyangziyouzeshigongmindeyixiangjibenquanli。zongjiaoxinyangziyouzhengceneihanzhongmingqueguiding: “renheguojiajiguan、shehuituantihegerenbudeqiangzhigongminxinyangzongjiaohuobuxinyangzongjiao,budeqishixinyangzongjiaodegongminhebuxinyangzongjiaodegongmin。”“juebuyunxuqiangporenheren,tebieshi18suiyixiashaonianertongrujiao、chujiadaosimiaoxuejing。”congci,xinbuxinyangzongjiaochengweigerensishi,yeshuyugongmindeyixiangjibenquanli,xinjiaohebuxinjiaodegerenziyoudedaolezunzhonghebaohu。

san、minzhugaigechedifeichulezangchuanfojiaogelupaideyijiaoduda

zangchuanfojiaodelishibansuizhebutongjiaopai、butongsimiaozhijiandechongtuyudouzheng。gelupaiyu17shijizaiqingzhongyangzhengfudezhichixia,qudexizangdifangdelingdaoquanhou,zhongduoqitajiaopaidesimiaoyebeipogaizonggelupai,zangchuanfojiaosuijixingchenglegelupaiyijiaodudadejumian。18shijikaishichuxiande “zongjiaoyuanrongyundong”,yeji“limei”,zangyuyiwei“wuzongpai”,jiushiyougaju、sajiaheningmadengpai,weishixiantongdengzunzhongsuoyoujiaopai,dapozangchuanfojiaoneibudemenhuzhijian,bingqizongpaipianjianhemaodunerfaqideyichangyundong,qishishiqitajiaopailianheqilaifanduigelupaiyijiaduzundeyichangyundong。danzhidaominzhugaigeqian,gelupaisimiaozaizhengzhihejingjishangdouchuyujueduiyoushi,qitayixiexiaodejiaopaizaixiuxinghechuanchengfangmianchuyujiannandibu。ju1932niandiaocha,zaisisengren500renyishangdedaxingsimiaozhong,gelupaizhan19zuo,gajupaizhan3zuo,sajiapaijinzhan1zuo。zai100renyishang、500renyixiadesiyuanzhong,gelupaizhan21zuo,gajupaizhan9zuo,ningmapaizhan3zuo。zheizhongpailiecixuyihoujibenshangmeiyougaibian。

minzhugaigehou,xizangzizhiqubanbule《simiaominzhuguanlizhangchengshixingfangan》,mingqueguidingshixing“zhengzhitongyi、xinjiaoziyou、zhengjiaofenli”hegejiaopaizaizongjiaoshang“gexingqishi、hubuganshe”defangzhen,chongfenbaozhanglezhusisengnidegongminquanli,gejiaopaizaizhengzhishangbuzaishouqishi,yilvpingdeng,weigejiaopaideyiqiezhengchangzongjiaohuodongdekaizhanyingzaolelianghaodehuanjing。rujin,zhongguozangyuxigaojifoxueyuanzaipeiyangxuesengfangmian,yeweigegejiaopaitongchoufenpeixueximinge。2010nianjianchengdexizangfoxueyuan,weirao“jiaopaibupian”“sengnigongxue”dengbanxuelinian,xingchenglezangchuanfojiaogepaixueyuanhuxiangxuexi、gepaibaijiaqifangdefenwei。

si、minzhugaigechedifeichulezangchuanfojiaoshangcengsenglvdetongzhitequan

jiuxizangzhengjiaoheyifengjiannongnuzhishehuizhongdesimiao,shiyigeyongyoufengjiantequanhedengjisenyandezuzhi,bujinzhusiheshusizhijiancunzaizhefengjianlishuguanxi,simiaoneibuyecunzaisenyandefengjianguanlidengjizhidu。zaiminzhugaigezhiqian,siyuansenglvfenchengxuduodengji,huofo、kanbu、guanjiajidanrenzhongyaozhiwudesengguanshishangcengsenglv,yuezhansengnizongshude4%。tamenbachisiyuandeyiqiedaquan,xiangshougengduodefengjiantequan。zhan90%yishangdeguangdaputongsengniwuquanwushi。simiaolingzhujituanxiangyouzhengzhitequan,tamenkeyiyingxiang、canyuhecaozongxizanggashazhengfudefalvbingyouquanshezhijianyu。jiuxizangsiyuandousheyoujianyu、zibeixingju,keyiduixiacengsengnihenongnulanshizhuruwayan、gebi、kanshou、yuezu、tuiya、nisidengkuxing。pabalahuofojiucengzhichu: “simiaozhongyiqieyazhasengsurenmindefengjianzhiduhegezhongtequan”“yidingyaoquanbufeichu。zheixiehuaizhidu,yuzongjiaoxinyangziyouzhengcekendingshixiangweibeide,yeshiweibeiguojiaxianfade,tahezongjiaodejiaoguihaowugongtongzhichu。bugaidiaozheizhongzhidu,bujinzuaixizangrenmindechedijiefang,duizongjiaoyewuyisuzhili,erhaichuquerudashan。”

danghezhengfuzaisimiaominzhugaigedeyijianzhongguiding: simiaoguanliweiyuanhuiyousanfenzhierdepinkusengnihesanfenzhiyideaiguoshoufadezongjiaozhong、shangcengrenshizucheng;weiyuanhuirenqiernian,youquansisengnixuanjuchansheng,weiyuanxuanchuhouyingbaojingzhengfupizhun。congci,guangdasengnidediweidedaolechengrenyuzunzhong,yizhurenwengdezitaicanyudaosimiaoshiwudeguanlidangzhong。zaihoulaide《simiaominzhuguanlizhangcheng》zhonghaiqiangdiao,“zhusiseng、nizaizhengzhishangyilvpingdeng,seng、nizhijiantichangxianghuzunzhong,xianghubangzhu,jiaqiangtuanjie,budehuxiangpaichiheqishi”。zaishengchanshenghuofangmian,minzhugaigechuqijiuguiding,sengnizhichengdansimiaobenshendeshengchan,renhejiguandanweiyanjinxiangsimiaodongyuanlaodong,gengbuyunxuyizhiyuanshengchanagzhenrendengmingyirangsengnichengdanyiwulaodong。minzhugaigebaozhanglesuoyousengnizaisimiaodepingdengyuquanli,zaishengchanshenghuofangmiantixianlegongping、gongzheng,baozhenglesengnizaisimiaodangjiazuozhudediwei,yuguangdaqunzhongyitongxiangyougongmindequanli。

wu、minzhugaigechedigaibianleputongsengnipinkunwuzhudebeicanjingdi

AG真人minzhugaigeqian,putongsengniyijinsiyuanjiuyaochengdanyixiliefengjianyiwuhegezhongchayi,siyuanguidingzheixiefengjianyiwuhechayikeyichuqiandaiyihuohuilumianyi,duicipinkusengnishiwunengweilide,zhinengzhongriweimiaosishangcenglamalaodong,guozheniumaburudeshenghuo。ruzhebangsiguiding,fanyaomianchugencha(yiweilaozigedecha),yaoduibenkangcunquantisengrenbushichafan1ci,meirenfazangyin3qian,juanzengkangcunjijinzangyin600liang,hejisanxiangkaizhiyue3zhi4qianliangzangyin。zheishipinkunsengrengenbenbanbudaodeshiqing,yinertamenyeyongyuantaotuobulegezhongchayi。

minzhugaigehou,rusimiaozaichengzhendezhusisengni,xiangshoutongchengzhenjuminyiyangdeliangshibutieheroujiabutie;sangshilaodongnenglidelaoruobingcansengni,xiangshouyuwubaohutongdengdedaiyu;duicanzhengyizhengdezongjiaojierenshi,xiangshouyutamentongdengtiaojiandeguojiaganbu、zhigongdetongdengdaiyu。tongguosimiaodejingyingshouru、zongjiaohuodongshouruhegejizhengfudebutie,shizhusisengnideshenghuowentidedaochedijiejue。guojiabanbude《zongjiaoshiwutiaoli》gengshiduizongjiaohuodongchangsuodetudi、caichan、gonggongagzhenrenjizongjiaorenshishehuibaozhangdengzuolemingqueguiding。

2011nian,agzhenrenqutuijinsimiao“jiuyou”gongcheng,yixiesimiaozai“jiuyou”dejichushangzengjialesimiaowenshi、zaotang、lajichi、shitangdengxiangmu。muqian,quanqu1700yuzuosimiaoshixiantonglu、tongshui、tongdian、tongxunfugai,youxiaojiejuelesimiaosengnizuikewang、zuizhijie、zuixianshidewenti,gaishanlesimiaojichusheshihegonggongagzhenrentiaojian。simiaohailuoshile“yifugai”zhengce,youdifangcaizhengmeinianbutie2600duowanyuan,jiangquanqusimiaozaibiansengniquanbunarushebaotixi,shixianlezaibiansengniyiliaobaoxian、yanglaobaoxian、renshenyiwaishanghaixianhezuidishenghuobaozhangquanfugai,meinianmianfeiweisengnijinxingyicijiankangtijian,jianlijiankangdangan,shizangchuanfojiaosengzhongyusuoyouminzhongyiqigongxiangagzhenrenguogaigefazhandailaidefengshuochengguo。

AG真人liu、minzhugaigechedifeichuleshangcengsenglvzhuanzhidetequan

minzhugaigeqiandezangchuanfojiaosimiaoguanlitizhidengjisenyan,guanlizizhuxingqiang,mingxiantixianchuzhengjiaoheyizhiduxiasimiaoguanlidezhengquantexing。simiaoneibuguanlimoshijigoupangza,gongnengwanbei,qielingjiayushisushehuizhishang。zheizhongyouliyushehuiguankongzhiwai,bingyuequangansheshisushiwudeguanlimoshi,zaoyibufuhejindaishehuifazhandexingshi,zaiwenwubaohufangmiangengshiwucongtanji。

AG真人minzhugaigehou,quanqusimiaopubianshelilexindeguanlijigou,qudaiyuanyoude“cuoqinhuiyi”chengweisiyuanneibuzuigaoquanlijigou。danghezhengfuchutaibingbuduanwanshan《zangchuanfojiaosimiaominzhuguanlizhangcheng》,duizangchuanfojiaosimiaodezuzhi、jigouzhidudengfangfangmianmiandouzuolexiangxideguiding,yeduixiandaixizangsimiaoguanlizhiduchanshenglesuzaoxingdeyingxiang。cong2011niankaishi,agzhenrenqujiaqianghechuangxinsimiaoguanli,jiangshehuizhililinianyinrusimiaoguanliagzhenrenlingyu,basimiaozuoweijibendeshehuixibaoheshehuidanyuan,baguangdasengnizuoweiputonggongmin,zaiquanqusimiaoquanmianshishileshehuiguanlihegongwuagzhenrenquanfugai。

AG真人tongshi,danghezhengfuzaisimiaoguanlizhongduiwenwubaohuhexiufugongzuoyegaoduzhongshi。guojiaxianhoutouru7yiyuyuanjinxingsimiaowenwudexiufu。1994nian5yue,lianheguojiaokewenzuzhishijieyichanweiyuanhuiweituodezhuanjiaduiweixiujungongdebudalagongjinxingleshidikaocha,renweiweixiudeshejiheshigongdoudadaoleguojixianjinshuiping,shigujianzhubaohushishangdeqiji,duizangwenhuanaizhishijiewenhuabaohuzuochulejudagongxian。dangnian12yue,budalagongyouyuqibenshenjiazhiyubaohuzhuangkuang,beishijieyichanweiyuanhuiyizhitongyilieru《shijieyichanminglu》。

AG真人bansuizhebeichengweishijieshangzuidaguimo“feinu”yundongdexizangminzhugaigedejinxing,xizangfojiaojieyekaizhanlehonghonglieliedezongjiaozhidudeminzhugexin,chedifeichulesiyuandefengjiantequanheyapoboxuezhidu,zangchuanfojiaohuidaoleqingjingchunjiedebenlaimianmao。minzhugaigechedifeichulezangchuanfojiaodefengjiantequan,conggenbenshangbadiaolezhengjiaoheyifengjiannongnuzhidudezuidaduliu,weixizangshixingrenminminzhuzhidusaoqinglefandongdeshenquanzhangai、diandinglejianshijichu。dangqian,zangchuanfojiaojiehongyangaiguoaijiaoyouliangchuantong,buduanjiaqiangzishenagzhenren,duijiaoyijiaoguizuochufuhedangdaizhongguofazhanjinbu、fuhezhonghuayouxiuchuantongwenhuadechanshi,zaizhengzhishangzijuerentong、wenhuashangzijueronghe、shehuishangzijueshiying,yushehuifazhantongbu、yushidaijinbutongpin,chengweishehuiagzhenrendehexieyinsuheguojiaagzhenrendejijililiang。shisishidalaiweilefupizhengjiaoheyidefengjiannongnuzhidu,bazongjiaozuoweizhengzhigongjuziyifoudingsimiaominzhugaigedechengguo,foudingrenminqunzhongxiangyouzongjiaoxinyangziyoudequanli,qianfangbaijiganraopohuaizangchuanfojiaodezhengchangzhixu,weibeilezangchuanfojiaozishendefazhanguilv,weibeileguangdaxinzhongdexinyuan,qixianeyongxinzhaoranruojie,zhudingshibai。

中共西藏自治区委员会党校 西藏自治区行政学院 保留一切文字图形权利 藏ICP备09000421
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