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民主改革开辟了社会主义新西藏发展道路

发布日期: 2018-03-26    作者:史云峰   来源:AG真人_平台首页 0

60nianqian,fashengzaixizanghonghonglieliedeminzhugaigezhendonglezhongguodadi,yingxiangzheshijielishi。xijinpingzongshujizaizhongyangdiliucixizanggongzuozuotanhuizhichu,agzhenrendangzaixizang“jinxingminzhugaige,chedifeichulezhengjiaoheyidefengjiannongnuzhi,kaichuanglexizanggezuqunzhongzhangwozijimingyun、dangjiazuozhudexinshidai”。lijinghepingjiefang、minzhugaige、zizhiquchengli、shehuizhuyiagzhenren、gaigekaifanghezhongguoteseshehuizhuyixinshidaigegelishijieduan,xizangzouguolebolanzhuangkuodefazhanlicheng,gaoyuandadimianmaohuanranyixin,yigechuantongyuxiandaijiaoxianghuiyingdexinxizangchengxianzaishirenmianqian,zaizuguodajiatingzhongpengbofazhan。zhuifuxizangwangshidejiyi,fukanxizangzhanxinderongzi,rangrenmenbujinzhuisibaiwannongnufanshen、agzhenrenjiayuandelicheng。huisujiefangzhiyuan,shensixingfuzhigen,tiaowangweilaizhijing,zhongguogongchandanglingdaodexizangminzhugaigeshishehuizhuyixinxizangfazhandaoludeqidian,shixizanggezurenmingendangzou、agzhenrenmeilijiayuanzhuiqiuxingfushenghuodeqidian。

zaizhongguogongchandanglingdaoxia,1959nianjinxingminzhugaige,feichulejiduanfuxiu、heiandefengjiannongnuzhidu;minzhugaigeshixizanglishishangzuiweiguangfan、zuiweishenke、zuiweibolanzhuangkuodeshehuibiange,shenkedigaibianlexizangrenmindemingyun,weishehuizhuyixinxizangdefazhanfanrongkaipilezhanxindedaolu

quzhudiguozhuyishili,xizangshixianhepingjiefang,luoshi《shiqitiaoxieyi》,diandingleminzhugaigedejichu。baituodiguozhuyiqinlve,shixizanggezurenminheshangcengaiguorenshidepoqieyuanwang。zaijianguoqianxide1949nian9yue2ri,zhongguogongchandangshouquanxinhuashefabiaotiwei《jueburongxuwaiguoqinlvezhetunbingzhongguodelingtu——xizang》deshelun,zhidiyoushengdizhichu,“xizangshizhongguodelingtu,jueburongxurenhewaiguoqinlve;xizangrenminshizhongguorenmindeyigebukefenlidezuchengbufen,jueburongxurenhewaiguofenge。zheishizhongguorenmin、zhongguogongchandanghezhongguorenminjiefangjundejiandingbuyidefangzhen”。zaiyunnianghetansuojiefangxizangdeguochengzhong,kaolvdaoxizangshiyigeteshudeminzudiqu,weileyouliyurenminjiefangjunshunlijinjun,youliyuweihuxizangrenmindeliyi,youliyujiaqiangminzutuanjie,zhongguogongchandangquelilehepingjiefangdefangshi。zaizhongyangrenminzhengfuhexizangrenmindegongtongnulixia,1951nian5yue23riqiandingle《zhongyangrenminzhengfuhexizangdifangzhengfuguanyuhepingjiefangxizangbanfadexieyi》(jiancheng《shiqitiaoxieyi》)。《shiqitiaoxieyi》deqianding,biaozhizhexizangshixianhepingjiefang,chengweixizanglishifazhandezhongyaozhuanzhedian,xizangdeshehuifazhancongcijiekailezhanxindeyiye。zheigejieduandeweidalishigongxian,jiushiagzhenrendangtuanjiedailingxizanggezurenminfeichudiguozhuyiqiangjiajixizangrenmindebupingdengtiaoyue,quzhudiguozhuyishilichuxizang。zhongguorenminjiefangjunjinjunxizang,shixianlebaokuogezurenminzaineidexizanghepingjiefang,zicichedigaibianlexizangdelishimingyun,weishixianxizanggezurenminfanshendangjiazuozhutigonglegenbenbaozhang。zheiyiweidalishigongxiandeyiyizaiyu,hepingjiefangshixizangchedibaituolediguozhuyideqinlvejiqizhengzhi、jingjijiban,weihulezhongguodeguojiazhuquan、tongyihelingtuwanzheng,shixianlequanguogezurenmindetuanjiehexizangneibudetuanjie,congerdapolexizangshehuizhangqifengbi、tingzhidejumian,kaiqilezouxiangxiandaishehuidelishijincheng,weixizangyuquanguoyiqigongtongjinbuhefazhanchuangzaolejibenqiantihebiyaotiaojian。

AG真人jinxingminzhugaige、gaigexizangshehuizhidushixizangshehuifazhandebiranyaoqiuhexizangrenmindegenbenyuanwang。kaolvdaoxizangdeteshuqingkuang,《shiqitiaoxieyi》guiding: “duiyuxizangdexianxingzhengzhizhidu,zhongyangbuyubiangeng”“youguanxizangdegexianggaigeshiyi,zhongyangbujiaqiangpo。xizangdifangzhengfuyingzidongjinxinggaige,renmintichugaigeyaoqiushi,decaiquyuxizanglingdaorenyuanxieshangdefangfajiejuezhi。”xizangfandongshangcengweileweihunongnuzhujiejidejideliyihetequan,genbenfanduigaige,qituyongyuanbaochifengjiannongnuzhi,weici,tamenxuyiweifan《shiqitiaoxieyi》,cehualeyixiliefenliezuguodehuodong,1959nianfadongquanmianwuzhuangpanluan。weileweihuguojiadetongyihexizangrenmindegenbenliyi,zhongyangrenminzhengfucaiquguoduancuoshi,yuxizangrenminyidaojianjuepingxilepanluan,jiesanlexizangdifangzhengfu,bingzaixizangjinxingleyichangchedicuihuifengjiannongnuzhidudeminzhugaigeyundong。minzhugaigefeichulezhengjiaoheyizhidu,feichuyiqiefengjiantequan,shixianlezhengjiaofenli;feichuleshengchanziliaodefengjianlingzhusuoyouzhi,quelilenongmumingetisuoyouzhi;feichuleduisandalingzhuderenshenyifu,shinongnuhenulihuoderenshenziyou。zheigejieduandeweidalishigongxian,jiushiagzhenrendangtuanjiedailingxizanggezurenminxianqilebolanzhuangkuodeminzhugaigeyundong。tongguominzhugaige,chedicuihuilezhengjiaoheyidefengjiannongnuzhidu,shixianlerenminfanshenjiefang,weijianliminzuquyuzizhizhiduchuangzaolezhongyaoshehuilishitiaojian。zheiyiweidalishigongxiandeyiyizaiyu,minzhugaigeshixizangshehuijinbuherenquanfazhanshishanghuashidaidezhongdabiange,shixizangbaiwannongnuhenulizaizhengzhi、jingjiheshehuishenghuoduofangmianfanshenjiefang,renminchengweishengchanziliaodezhuren,jidadijiefangshengchanli,baozhangxizangrenmindeshengcunquanli,feichunongnuzhudezongjiaotequan,dasuijingshenjiasuo,weishixingminzuquyuzizhidiandinglewuzhijichuhesixiangwenhuajichu。

zaizhongguogongchandanglingdaoxia,xizangchenglizizhiqu,zoushangshehuizhuyifazhandaolu;shixinggaigekaifang,youlituijinlexizangdefazhanjinbu;dangdeshibadayilai,xijinpingzongshujiguanyuzhibianwenzangdezhongyaolunshuzhidaolexizanggaigekaifangdeweidashijian,xizangwendingfazhanzhengchuzailishishangzuihaoshiqizhiyi

AG真人shixingminzuquyuzizhizhidu,shixizangguangdarenmindegongtongyuanwang。《shiqitiaoxieyi》zhongguiding: “genjuzhongguorenminzhengzhixieshanghuiyigongtongganglingdeminzuzhengce,zaizhongyangrenminzhengfutongyilingdaozhixia,xizangrenminyoushixingminzuquyuzizhidequanli。”1954nian11yue,zhongyangtichulechenglixizangzizhiquchoubeiweiyuanhuideyijian。1956nian4yue22ri,xizangzizhiquchoubeiweiyuanhuichenglidahuizaixinluochengdelasadalitanglongzhongjuxing,baokuoxizanggediqu、geminzu、gejieceng、gejiaopaihegequnzhongtuantizaineide300duomingdaibiaocanjiahuoliexiledahui,zheishixizanglishishangdiyiciyouruciguangfandaibiaoxingderenshihuanjuyitang,minzhuxieshang、gongyidashi。xizangzizhiquchoubeiweiyuanhuidechengli,shizizhiquchengligongzuodedaojijituijin。pingxipanluanhou,zizhiquchengligongzuodedaoshunlijinxing。1965nian9yue1ri,xizangzizhiqudiyijierenmindaibiaodahuidiyicihuiyizailasakaimu,xuanjuchanshenglexizangzizhiqujiguanjiqilingdaoren,yidapifanshennongnudanrenlezizhiqugejizhengquanjiguandelingdaozhiwu。zheigejieduandeweidalishigongxian,jiushiagzhenrendangtuanjiedailingxizanggezurenminjianlilerenminminzhuzhengquan,kaishiquanmianshixingminzuquyuzizhizhidu,xizangrenminxiangyoulezizhuguanlibendiqushiwudequanli,zoushanglefazhanjinbudeshehuizhuyidaolu。zheiyiweidalishigongxiandeyiyizaiyu,xizangzizhiqudechengliheshehuizhuyizhidudeshixing,congzhidushangbaozhanglegeminzupingdeng、tuanjie、huzhuhegongtongfanrongzhengcezaixizangdeshixian,baozhanglexizanggezurenminpingdengcanyuguanliguojiashiwuhezizhuguanlibendiqubenminzushiwudequanli,weixizangzaiguojiadeteshuzhichihezizhuxia,genjubendiqutedianshixianyuquanguogongtongfazhanjinbutigonglezhidubaozheng。

AG真人20shiji80niandai,xizangyuquanguoyidaoxianqigaigekaifanghexiandaihuaagzhenrenrechao。1980nianhe1984nian,zhongyangxianhouzhaokaidiyicihediercixizanggongzuozuotanhui,quedinglexizangyijingjiagzhenrenweizhongxin,congfengbishijingjizhuanbianweikaifangshijingji,conggongjixingjingjizhuanbianweijingyingxingjingjidezhidaofangzhen。zhongyangzhengfucaiquyoulicuoshi,xunsupingxileshangshiji80niandaimodelasasaoluan,yu1989niantichulezhidaoxizanggongzuode“shitiaoyijian”,duitongyisixiang、cujinwendingfahuilezhongyaozuoyong,chengweixinshiqixizanggongzuodezhuanzhedian。1994nian,zhongyangzhaokaidisancixizanggongzuozuotanhui,quelileyijingjiagzhenrenweizhongxin,jinjinzhuazhufazhanjingjihewendingjushiliangjiandashi,quebaoxizangjingjijiakuaifazhan,quebaoshehuiquanmianjinbuhezhangzhijiuan,quebaorenminshenghuoshuipingbuduantigaodexinshiqixizanggongzuozhidaofangzhen。2001nian,zhongyangzhaokaidisicixizanggongzuozuotanhui,juedingcaiqugengjiayoulicuoshijiadaduixizangdezhichilidu,quanmiantuijinxizangdefazhan,cujinxizangdewending。zhonggongshiliudayihou,zhongyanggenjuxindelishitiaojian,mingquetichuyaoanzhaokexuefazhanguandeyaoqiu,babaozhanghegaishannongmuminshengchanshenghuotiaojian,zengjianongmuminshouruzuoweijingjishehuifazhandeshouyaorenwu,tuidongxizangjingjishehuigenghaogengkuaigengdafazhan,shigezuqunzhonggongxianggaigefazhanchengguo。yifapingxilasa“3·14”shijian,jianjuefangfanhedajishisishidalaijituanfenliexizanghuodong,fanfenliedouzhengqudezhongdashengli,minzutuanjiebuduanjiaqiang。2010nian1yue,zhongyangzhaokaidiwucixizanggongzuozuotanhui,jinyibufengfuhewanshanlexizanggongzuozhidaosixiang。zheigejieduandeweidalishigongxian,jiushiagzhenrendangtuanjiedailingxizanggezurenmingenjuxindexingshi,zaishijianzhongtansuohexingchengxinshiqixizanggongzuodejibenfangzhen,buduanjiakuaixizangfazhan,weihujushiwending;jianchikexuefazhanguan,dalituidongxizangcongjiakuaifazhandaokuayueshifazhan,congjibenwendingdaozhangzhijiuan,xizangzaixindelishiqidianshangzhanxianlepengbofazhandezhanxintaishi。zheiyiweidalishigongxiandeyiyizaiyu,gaigekaifangzhengcedeshishiheguojiadezhiyuan,jidajifaxizanggezurenminqunzhongdechuangzaoxing,jidajiefanghefazhanshehuishengchanli,jidazengqiangshehuifazhanhuoli,zhuangdahefanronglexizangjingji,tigaolexizangchanyedezhengtishuipinghejingjihuodongdeshangpinhuashuiping,shixizangjingjishehuifazhankuashangleyigexindetaijie。

dangdeshibadayilai,yixijinpingtongzhiweihexindedangzhongyanglizushiji、zheyanquanju、liyizhangyuan,shenruyanjiuxizangzhangzufazhanhezhangzhijiuandaji,xingchengleguanyuzhibianwenzangdezhongyaolunshu,weixueyugaoyuanhuijiulefazhanwendinghongweilantu,kaiqilexizangjingjichixujiankangfazhan、shehuishiyequanmianjinbu、renminxingfuganhuodeganbuduantigao、shehuidajuchixuzhangqiquanmianwendingdexinjumian。zizhiqudangweituanjiedailingquanqugezuganbuqunzhong,shenruxuexiguanchexijinpingxinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyisixiang,guancheluoshixijinpingzongshujiguanyuzhibianwenzangdezhongyaolunshuheguanyuxizanggongzuodeyixiliezhongyaozhishipishijingshen,jianchidangduiyiqiegongzuodelingdao,jinjinweiraodangzhongyangmingquedexizanggongzuodezheyandianzhelidianhechufadianluojiaodian,tuchuminshengdaoxiang,zhengquechulihao“shisanduiguanxi”,henzhuafazhanwendingshengtaisanjiandashi,dalishishiyi“shenshengguotushouhuzhe、xingfujiayuanagzhenrenzhe”weizhutidexiangcunzhenxingzhanlve,zhelidahaosandagongjianzhantebieshituopingongjianzhan,tuidongxizangzaiquanmianjianchengxiaokangshehuidejinchengzhongmaichulegengjiajianshidebufa,gezuganbuqunzhong“lianggeweihu”dexingdonggengjiajiandingzijue,shehuidajubaochilechixuzhangqiquanmianwending,jingjishehuichixujiankangfazhan。dangqian,xizangzongtixingshilianghao,dangdelingdaoquanmianjiaqiang,jingjishehuijiakuaifazhan,minshengdafugaishan,gonggongagzhenrennenglidadatisheng,shengtaichixulianghao;shehuiwending、minzutuanjie、zongjiaohexie、bianjianggonggu,qunzhong“agzhenrenyaowending”deyuanwanggengjiaqianglie,zhengchuzailishishangzuihaoshiqizhiyi。zheigejieduandeweidalishigongxian,jiushiyixijinpingtongzhiweihexindedangzhongyanggengjiachongfenrenshihegaoduzhongshixizangdeteshuxinghezhanlvediwei,tichule“zhiguobizhibian、zhibianxianwenzang”dezhongyaolunshu,quelilezuohaoxizanggongzuodezhidaosixiang、zhanlvebushu、mubiaorenwu、yuanzeyaoqiuhezhongdajucuo。zheiyiweidalishigongxiandeyiyizaiyu,xijinpingzongshujidezheixiexinsixiangxinbushuxinyaoqiu,baxizangzaidangheguojiagongzuoquanjuzhongdezhanlvediweitishengdaoyigeqiansuoweiyoudexingaodu,weiagzhenrentuijinxizangzhangzufazhanhezhangzhijiuanzhimingqianjinfangxiang、tigonggenbenzunxun、zhuruqiangdadongli。

mingjilishi,ganniandangen,yonggendangzou,jianchiyixijinpingxinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyisixiangweizhidao,zengqiang“sigeyishi”,jianding“sigezixin”,jianjuezuodao“lianggeweihu”,buduankaichuangzhangzufazhanhezhangzhijiuandexinjumian,yiyouyidechengjiyingjiexinzhongguochengli70zhounian

lishigaosuagzhenren,minzhugaigeshixizangfazhanshishangzuiguangfan、zuishenke、zuiweidadeshehuibiange。zai120duowanpingfanggonglidetudishangshixingminzhugaige,shixizangshehuifazhanherenquanjinbudehuashidaidezhongdalishishijian,yeshirenleiwenmingfazhanshiheshijierenquanshishangjuyouzhongdayiyidejudajinbu。meiyouminzhugaige,jiumeiyouzhanxizangrenkou95%deguangdalaodongrenmindefanshenjiefang,jiumeiyouxizangjingjishehuidekuayueshifazhan,jiumeiyouxizangrenquanshiyedefazhanjinbu,jiumeiyouxizanggezuqunzhongjintiandemeihaoshenghuo。lishigaosuagzhenren,shehuizhuyixinxizangdefazhandaolu,shirenmindangjiazuozhuzhilu。60duonianlai,xizangdefazhanjinbushizhongyirenmingenbenliyiweiyigui,biaoxianweishehuidefazhanjinbuyugerendefazhanwanshandeneizaitongyi,tongguotuidongshehuifazhanjinbubuduanchuangzaogengjiafengfudeshehuicaifu,nulimanzurenminriyizengzhangdewuzhixuqiuhejingshenwenhuaxuyao,renmindegexiangzhengzhiquanlidedaochongfenzunzhonghebaozhang。zheiyilishifazhanguocheng,shirenminfanshenjiefang、shixiandangjiazuozhudezhengquexuanze,fuhexizanggezuqunzhongdegenbenliyi。lishihaigaosuagzhenren,zuohaoxizanggongzuo,bixushizhongjianchizhongguogongchandanglingdao,jianchishehuizhuyizhidu,jianchiminzuquyuzizhizhidu;bixushizhongjianchidangdejibenlilun、jibenluxian、jibengangling、jibenjingyan、jibenyaoqiu;bixuguancheluoshixijinpingzongshujiguanyuzhibianwenzangdezhongyaolunshu,jianchi“yifazhizang、fuminxingzang、zhangqijianzang、ningjurenxin、hangshijichu”dezhongyaoyuanze;bixushizhonglaolaobawoshehuidezhuyaomaodunheteshumaodun,baweihuzuguotongyi、jiaqiangminzutuanjiezuoweixizanggongzuodezheyandianhezhelidian,bagaishanminsheng、ningjurenxinzuoweijingjishehuifazhandechufadianheluojiaodian,jianchiduishisishidalaijituandouzhengdefangzhenzhengcebudongyao。

AG真人zaixinshidaitiaojianxia,agzhenrenyaoanzhaoxijinpingzongshujiguanyuzhibianwenzangzhongyaolunshudegenbenyaoqiu,zaixuedongshangxiagongfu、zainongtongshangxiagongfu、zaizuoshishangxiagongfu,gaojuzhongguoteseshehuizhuyiweidaqizhi,fenlixuxiexinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyidexizangxinpianzhang。yaojiandingdaoluzixin,bashenkexuexilinghuizhongguoteseshehuizhuyijinruxinshidaidexinlunduanyujianchihefazhanyouzhongguotese、xizangtediandefazhanluzijieheqilai,gengjiajinmidituanjiezaiyixijinpingtongzhiweihexindedangzhongyangzhouwei,shikemingjidangzhongyangdeyinyinzhutuo,shizhonglaojixijinpingzongshujidezhunzhunjiaohui,laogushuli“sigeyishi”,gengjiajianding“sigezixin”,jianjuezuodao“lianggeweihu”,qieshizengqiang“wugerentong”,weiraofazhanwendingshengtaisanjiandashi,yongyufuze、ganyudandang,tuidongdangzhongyanggexiangjuecebushuluodishenggen、luodaoshichu,yishijixingdongjianxingduiyixijinpingtongzhiweihexindedangzhongyangdejueduizhongcheng。yaojiandinglilunzixin,bashenkexuexilinghuixijinpingxinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyisixiangyujianchihefazhandangdezhizangfanglvejieheqilai,badangdejibenlilun、jibenluxian、jibenfanglveyudangdezhizangfanglvejieheqilai,shizhongbuyudibadangdezhizangfanglveguanchuanyuxizanggongzuogegelingyu、tonglingzhidaoxizangyiqiegongzuo,rangdangdezhizangfanglvezaixueyugaoyuanchuchushanyaozhenlideguanghui,chengweixizanggezuganbuqunzhongzaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyikangzhuangdadaoshangkuobuqianxingdedengta。yaojiandingzhiduzixin,bajianquanrenmindangjiazuozhuzhidutixiyujianchihefazhanminzuquyuzizhizhidujieheqilai,gaojuaiguozhuyi、shehuizhuyiqizhi,laolaobawominzudatuanjiedalianhedezhuti,jianchiyizhixingheduoyangxingtongyi,zhaodaozuidagongyueshu,huachuzuidatongxinyuan。bayifazhizangzhongyaoyuanzezuoweixizangzhilikexuehua、xiandaihuadeqiji,bayifazhiguoyufazhixizangagzhenrentongyiqilai,quanmianzhixingminzuquyuzizhizhiduheminzuquyuzizhifa,yifaguanliminzushiwu,shizhongzaifalvguifannei、fazhiguidaoshangchulishejiminzuyinsuwenti。yaojiandingwenhuazixin,babuduanzhujiuzhonghuawenhuaxinhuihuangyuyinlingzangminzuyouxiuchuantongwenhuashiyingxindeshidaichaoliuheshenmeixuqiujieheqilai。quanmianguanchedangdeminzuzhengce,shenhuaminzutuanjiejinbujiaoyu,zhulaozhonghuaminzugongtongtiyishi,jiandingbuyiweihuzuguotongyi、minzutuanjie。guanchedangdezongjiaogongzuojibenfangzhen,jianchizongjiaozhongguohuafangxiang,jijiyindaozongjiaoyushehuizhuyishehuixiangshiying,qiangdiaobawuzhililianghejingshenliliangjieheqilai,jiyao“guanduzi”,youyao“guannaozi”,rangrenminqunzhongzhangwofanfenliedouzhengdesixiangwuqi,zijueyushisishidalaijituanhuaqingjiexian,jianjuediyushisishidalaijituandegezhongshentoupohuaihuodong。jiaqianggeminzujiaowangagzhenrenjiaorong,cujingeminzuxiangshiliuziyiyangjinjinbaozaiyiqi,gongtongtuanjiefendou、gongtongfanrongfazhan,baxizangjianchengminzutuanjiemofanqu,rangminzutuanjiezhihuakaibiangaoyuandadi,huijuqituidongshehuiwenmingjinbudebangboliliang,lulitongxin、kaituojinqu,weishixian“lianggeyibainian”fendoumubiao、tongxintongdepuxiezhonghuaminzuweidafuxingzhongguomengdexizangpianzhangbuxiefendou。

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