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民主改革与西藏法制AG真人

发布日期: 2018-03-26    作者:韩德辉 王玉杰   来源:AG真人_平台首页 0

xizangminzhugaigeyilaide60nian,shirenmindangjiazuozhude60nian,shijingjikuaisufazhande60nian,shishehuibuduanjinbude60nian。zheiyiqieshehuibiangedechengguoyuxizangdefazhiagzhenrenmibukefen,zhidudebiangeweishehuibiangetigonglebaozhang,shehuibiangeweifazhibiangechuangzaoletiaojian。

yi、jiuxizangdefazhizhuangkuang

ziyuanchaozhongyangzhengfuzhengshiduixizangxingshiguanxiaquanyilai,xizangchengxianchuzhongyanglifayudifangfalvbingcundezhuangtai。zhongyanglifaweihudifangzhengfutongzhi,difanglifayerongrulezhongyangdeyizhi,danzongtilaishuo,xizangdefalvweihudeshizhengjiaoheyidefengjiannongnuzhi。zhongyangzhengfuzailifashangchulejianchixizangdezhuquanguishuhezhongyangjiquanwai,yezaiyidingchengdushangkaolvdaoxizangdelishi、fengsuheminzudeteshuxing,jiyuqiyidingdezizhuquan。tebieshizaiqingzhengfushiqicaiqule“congqijiao,buyiqisu”defangzhen,tongshiquelile“fanyifanli”defalvshiyongguize。qingzhengfuzhenduixizanggongzhidingle6budanxingfagui,qizhongzuiweirensuoshuzhideshi《zangneishanhouzhangcheng》。gaizhangchengconghuofozhuanshizhidu、zhuzangdachenzhiquan、caishuizhidu、difangjunduizujianjiyunxingzhidudengzhuduocengmianjinxingleguiding。zheitixianlezhongyangzhengfuduixizangdezhililingyubuduankuoda,duixizangdeguanxiayuelaiyueshenru。qingmoyihouzhiminzhugaigeqian,youyuzhongyangzhengfuneiyouwaihuan、zhanluanbuduan,zaiduixizangdeguanxiahezhilishangmeiyougengduodechengjiu。

xizangnaruzhongyangguanxiayilai,difangzhengfuzhidinglediyibufengjiannongnuzhifadian《shiwufadian》,weixizangnongnuzhizhiduzhilanshang。cihou,xizangdifangzhengfuzhidingleyixiliefalvweihuqizhengjiaoheyidefengjiannongnuzhi。zheiyishiqidefadian,shouxian,jiangrenfenweisandengjiuji,gongkaiweihubupingdengzhidu,didengderenhaowurengehequanlikeyan;qici,shezhiyankudexingfaweihuheiantongzhi,rouxing、sixingjiweipubian,wayan、gebi、duoshoudengshouduanwusuobuyongqiji,zaicanku、yeman、luohoudenongnuzhudetongzhixia,nongnuguozheshuishenhuoredeshenghuo;zaici,tongguofalvdexingshiweihuzongjiaotuantidetequan,batequanfalvhua;zuihou,fawaiyoufa,nulizhudeyijuhuajiukeyichengweilanyongsixingdeyiju。

jiuxizangdesifajiguanshiweihusandalingzhuliyidejigou,shitongzhijiejideyuyonggongju,shizuiefalvdeyunxingjiqi。qizaijianzhishanghunluanbukan,chudifangzhengfushezhidefayuanwai,sandalingzhukeyizaizijishilifanweineisuiyishezhi。siyuanyongyouzhigaowushangdequanli,sengrenfanzuiyousiyuanshenli,difangzhengfubudeganshe。zhinengshang,sifayuxingzhengheyi,zhengfujiguantongshiyoushishenpanjiguan,douyoushenpanzhineng。

zongzhi,jiuxizangdelifajisifashi“renchiren”zhidudehefawaiyi,shiweihuqizhengjiaoheyidefengjiannongnuzhidegongju。

AG真人er、minzhugaigeyilaixizangdefazhizhuangkuang

1949nian,《zhongguorenminzhengzhixieshanghuiyigongtonggangling》yilinshixianfadexingshiduiminzuquyuzizhizhidudequelizuochulemingquedeguiding,zhonghuarenmingongheguochengliyishi,zaiquanguopubiantuixingleminzuquyuzizhizhidu。xinzhongguodiyibu《xianfa》ji1954nian《xianfa》duiminzuquyuzizhizuolexiangjindeguiding。zhici,minzuquyuzizhizhengshinaruxinzhongguoxianfatixizhong,chengweiagzhenrenguojiejueminzuwentidejibenzhengce。zheiyeweizaixizangshixingminzuquyuzizhizhidutigonglezhiduyuanyuanhefalvbaozhang。

(yi)minzhugaigeqianxidexizangfazhiagzhenren

zaixizanghepingjiefangzhiminzhugaigedezheiduanshijianneichengxianchuliangzhongzhengquanbingcun,liangzhongfalvzhidubingcundezhuangkuang。zhongyangrenminzhengfuyuxizangdifangzhengfuqiandingde《shiqitiaoxieyi》fensuilediguozhuyidefenlietumou,tongshiyetixianleduixizangshehuizhuangkuangdechongfenzunzhong,zheiyeshixizangfazhiagzhenrenshishanghuashidaidefengbei。ciwai,《guowuyuanguanyuchenglixizangzizhiquchoubeiweiyuanhuidejueding》detongguo,weichouweihuijianlitigonglefalvyiju,weixizangweilaishixingminzuquyuzizhimaichuguanjianbufa。zheiyishiqidefalvyouxianmingdeshidaitezheng,jizaiweihuguojiatongyideqiantixiakaolvxizangteshuxing,caiqushenzhongwenjindegongzuofangzhen。1959nian4yue,《guanyuxizangwentidejueyi》weiminzhugaigetigonglefalvbaozhang,gaijueyiguidinglezaixizangyaojianjueshixianzhongyangtongyilingdaoxiademinzuquyuzizhi,zhubujianligejizizhijigoujizhubujinxingminzhugaigedengzhuduofangmiandeneirong。

(er)minzhugaigeguochengzhongdexizangfazhiagzhenren

1959nian6yue,《guanyuxizangquanqujinxingminzhugaigedejueyi》duiminzhugaigedebuzhouheneirongjinxinglexiangxideguiding,zhengshilakailexizangminzhugaigedexumu。zici,xizangchedicuihuilezhengjiaoheyidefengjiannongnuzhidu,jiefanghefazhanlexizangdeshehuishengchanli,feichuleyiqiefengjiantequan,shixingzongjiaoxinyangziyouzhengce,shixingzhengjiaofenli,guidingzongjiaobudeganyuzhengzhi、jingji、wenhuaheshehuishenghuo,renminqunzhongdejingshendedaolekongqiandejiefang,zheiyeweixizangjianliminzuquyuzizhizhiduchuangzaolezhongyaotiaojian。1965nian9yue1ri,xizangzizhiqudiyijierenmindaibiaodahuidiyicihuiyizailasakaimu。xizangzizhiqudiyijierenmindaibiaodahuixuanjuchanshenglexizangzizhiqujiguanjiqilingdaoren,yidapifanshennongnudanrenlezizhiqugejizhengquanjiguandelingdaozhiwu。xizangzizhiqudechengli,biaozhizhexizangjianlilerenminminzhuzhengquan,kaishiquanmianshixingminzuquyuzizhizhidu。xizangchenggongdizoushangleyuquanguogezurenmingongtongtuanjiefendou、gongtongpingdengfazhan、gongtongfanrongjinbudeguangmingdadao。

AG真人(san)xizangfazhiagzhenrendewanshanjikuaisufazhan

AG真人shiyijiesanzhongquanhuiyilai,zhongyangshizhongbaxizangdewendinghefazhanzuoweigongzuodezhongzhongzhizhong,xizangdefazhiagzhenrenzaiminzuquyuzizhizhidudezhidaoxiaqudelekuaisufazhan。1984nian5yuetongguole《zhonghuarenmingongheguominzuquyuzizhifa》,zai2001nian2yuetongguode《zhonghuarenmingongheguominzuquyuzizhifa》xiuzhenganzhong,minzuquyuzizhibeiquedingwei“guojiadeyixiangjibenzhengzhizhidu”,2005nianbanbule《guowuyuanshishi〈minzuquyuzizhifa〉deruoganguiding》,yixiliefalvzhidudeshejishiagzhenrenguominzuquyuzizhideshijianyoufakeyi,xizangdeminzuquyuzizhiyejinrulexinjieduan。zizhiqurendachangweihuiyejijixingshi《xianfa》fuyudelifaquan,xianhouzhidingle3gebiantongguiding,ji《xizangzizhiqushixing〈zhonghuarenmingongheguohunyinfa〉debiantongtiaoli》《xizangzizhiqushishi〈zhonghuarenmingongheguominshisusongfa(shixing)〉deruoganbiantongbanfa》《xizangzizhiqushishi〈zhonghuarenmingongheguoshouyangfa〉debiantongguiding》。ciwai,jiehezizhiqushehuijingjifazhanshiji,zhidingleshishixize、shishibanfa、jueding、jueyi200yujian。

dangdeshibadayilai,yixijinpingtongzhiweihexindedangzhongyanggaoduzhongshixizanggongzuo、shenqieguanhuaixizanggezurenmin。2013nianquanguolianghuiqijian,xijinpingzongshujimingquetichule“zhiguobizhibian、zhibianxianwenzang”dezhongyaolunshu,weijinyibuzuohaoxizanggongzuozhimingleqianjinfangxiang、tigonglegenbenzunxun。2015nian8yue,xijinpingzongshujizaizhongyangdiliucixizanggongzuozuotanhuishang,tichulezuohaoxizanggongzuode“yifazhizang、fuminxingzang、zhangqijianzang、ningjurenxin、hangshijichu”dezhongyaoyuanze。rujin,xizangfalvzhidugengjiawanbei,fazhixizangagzhenrenyezairuhuorutudizhankai。

san、minzhugaigeyilaixizangfazhiagzhenrendejutishijian

AG真人minzhugaigeyilai,xizangdefazhizhubuwanshanfazhan,weixizanggexiangshiyedefazhantigonglezhidubaozhang。

(yi)xizangrenminzaizhengzhishangxiangyouchongfendezizhiquan

《xianfa》he《minzuquyuzizhifa》guidingdezhengzhiquanlidedaochongfenbaozhang。zaixizang,geminzurenminyifazhijiexuanjuxianqu、xiangzhenrenmindaibiaodahuidedaibiao,zheixiedaibiaoyouxuanjuchuxiquanguohezizhiqurenmindaibiaodahuidedaibiao。jutongji,quanqusijirendadaibiaozhong,zangzuzhan94%yishang。qizhong,zizhiqurendadaibiaozhong,zangzuzhan70%yishang。weilerangmenba、luoba、naxidengrenkoujiaoshaodeshaoshuminzugenghaodixingshidangjiazuozhudequanli,zizhiquzhengfuyizhaominzuquyuzizhizhengce,xianhoupizhunjianlilemenba、luoba、naxideng9geminzuxiang。zheixieshaoshuminzuzaiquanguorendajixizanggejirendazhongjunyouzijidedaibiao。minzuquyuzizhizhidudeguancheshishi,congzhiduhezuzhishangbaozhanglexizangrenmindezhengzhiquanli。rendadaibiaojijiyizhurenwengzitaiguanliguojiahedifangshiwu,jijitigaocanzhengyizhengnengli,yizangzurendadaibiaoweizhutiderendadaibiaoduiwu、yizangzuganbuweizhutidexizangganbuduiwu,jizhongtixianlexizangshixingminzuquyuzizhizhidudetedian。ciwai,xizangdifangzizhijiguanchongfenxingshi《xianfa》hefalvfuyudezizhiquan。jutongji,ziminzhugaigeyilai,xizangzizhiqurenmindaibiaodahuijiqichangwuweiyuanhuigongzhidingle200duojiandifangxingfaguihedanxingtiaoli,neirongshejizhengzhi、jingji、wenhua、jiaoyudenggegefangmian。

(er)xizangrenminzaijingjiheshehuifazhanshangxiangyouchongfendezizhuquan

jinnianlai,zizhiqudangwei、zhengfubashixianzhangzufazhanhezhangzhijiuanzuoweijingjiheshehuifazhandemubiao,bagaishanjichusheshitiaojian,tigaorenminshenghuoshuipingzuoweizhongdian,zizhuanpaijingjiheshehuifazhanxiangmu,quebaolexizangxiandaihuaagzhenrendekuaisujiankangfazhan,quebaolexizangjingjishehuidefazhanfuhexizangrenmindegenbenliyi。guojiagenjuxizangdetedianhexuyao,jinyiqienulibangzhuxizangjiakuaijingjiheshehuidefazhan,xizanggezuqunzhongshizhijieshouyizhe。kaolvdaoxizangdekeguanlishitiaojian、jingjishehuifazhanjichuchayijigaohaibadezirantiaojian,zhangqiyilai,guojiazaicaizheng、jinrong、shuishouhewuzi、jishu、rencaidengfangmianjiyuleteshudezhichihebangzhu。ruzaishuishoufangmian,xizangyizhizhixingbiquanguodi3gebaifendiandeshuishouyouhuizhengce,bingqieduinongmuminyizhimianshougezhongshuifei。ciwai,haiduinongmuminshixingmianfeiyiliao、nongmuminzinvshangxueshixing“sanbao”zhengce,dengdeng。

(san)xizangchuantongwenhuadedaojichenghefazhan

xizangzizhiquchongfenxingshi《xianfa》he《minzuquyuzizhifa》fuyudezizhuguanlihefazhanbendiquwenhuashiyedezizhiquan,yifabaozhangxizangrenminjichengfazhanminzuchuantongwenhuadeziyou。zangyuwendedaoguangfandexuexi、shiyonghefazhan,mingqueguidingzaixizangzizhiqu,zang、hanyuwenbingzhong,yizangyuwenweizhu,jiangxuexi、shiyonghefazhanzangminzuyuyanwenzidegongzuonarufazhihuadeguidao。quanmiantuixingyizangyuwenshoukeweizhudeshuangyujiaoxue。xizangzizhiqugejirenmindaibiaodahuijizhengfudewenjiandoushiyongzang、hanliangzhongwenzi。sifafangmian,duizangzususongcanyuren,doushiyongzangyuwenshenlianjian,falvwenshudoushiyongzangyuwen。xizangzizhiqudeguangbo、dianshitaizhuanmenkaisheyouzangyupindao。jinnianlai,quanqumeinianchubanzangwentushu100zhongyishang。zangwenbianmayitongguoguojiabiaozhunheguojibiaozhun,shizangwenchengweizhongguodiyigejuyouguojibiaozhundeshaoshuminzuwenzi。youxiudechuantongwenhuadedaojicheng、baohuhefazhan。banbushishileyixiliewenwubaohufagui,xiufukaifangle1400duozuosimiao,jishixiushanhebaohuledapiwenwu。xizangrenmindefengsuxiguandedaozunzhonghebaohu,tamenzaibaochibenminzufushi、yinshi、zhufangdechuantongfenggehefangshidetongshi,zaiyishizhuxing、hunsangjiaqugefangmianyexishouleyixietixianxiandaiwenming、jiankangshenghuodexindexisu。

AG真人minzhugaigedailailefantianfudidebianhua。rujindexizangzhengyizhanxindezitaihequanxindemianmaokuobuxiangqian。zhangfengpolanghuiyoushi,zhiguayunfanjicanghai。xiangxinweilaidexizangzaiyixijinpingtongzhiweihexindedangzhongyangdejianqianglingdaoxia,zaizizhiqudangwei、zhengfudebuxienulixia,yidingnenggoushixianfazhixizangagzhenrendehongweimubiao。

中共西藏自治区委员会党校 西藏自治区行政学院 保留一切文字图形权利 藏ICP备09000421
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