AG真人

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藏传佛教传统寺院内部管理模式及特征

发布日期: 2012-12-25    作者:来源:AG真人_平台首页 25

——以格鲁、萨迦、噶举三派为例

【zhaiyao】zangchuanfojiaosiyuanzailishishangzuoweizangqugedizhengzhi、jingji、wenhuadezhongxin,weichuanchengqijiaoyi、kongzhipangdadesengniduiwuyijiqianghuasiyuandezhengzhi、jingji、wenhuajisifadenggongneng,fazhanchulexitongeryoupangzadeneibuguanlimoshi。zheiyimoshigenjuzongpaidequbieyouyoubutongdetezheng。zongjielishijingyan,jiayifenxiyuyanjiu,youzhuyuquanmianjiaqianghechuangxinsimiaoguanli,goujiansimiaoguanlidezhangxiaojizhi,weihuzangchuanfojiaolingyudehexiewending。

【guanjianci】siyuan(miao);neibuguanli;tezheng;qishi

the traditional internal management mode and its characteristics 

of tibetan buddhist monasteries

AG真人  

[Abstract] Tibetan Buddhist monasteries were the center of politics, economy and culture of Tibetan areas in
 history. In order to pass on their teachings and control of a large team of monks and nuns, as well as to strengthen
 the political, economic, cultural and judicial functions of monasteries, it had developed a systematic and complex
 monasteries internal management mode. And according to different schools of Tibetan Buddhism , this mode
 have different characteristics. This article focus on how to better integrate the traditional management mode and
 modern management concepts, so that the monasteries better to adapt to the rapid development of the politics and
 economy of  Tibet autonomous region.

 


[keywords] monastery, internal management, characteristics, revelation

 

 

zhengjiaoheyizhiduxiadesiyuanzuoweizangchuanfojiaodezhongyaozaiti,jishizongjiaohesiyuanjituanzishendeguanlizhehetongzhizhe,youshizangzudiqushehuidezhuyaoguanlizhehetongzhizhe。siyuanzuoweisandalingzhuzhiyi,shiweihuzongjiaotequan,gongguzhengjiaoheyizhidudezuijiandingheqiangdadeshehuizhengzhizuzhihejingshenliliang。yucixiangyingxingchengdesimiaoneibudeguanlimoshiduizangchuanfojiaodecunxuhefazhanyingxiangshenyuan。duizangchuanfojiaosimiaoneibuguanlizhidulishiheguilvjiayikaochaheyanjiu,bawoqineizaitezheng,duijiaqianghechuangxinsimiaoguanli,goujiansimiaoguanlidezhangxiaojizhi,jijitansuojianlifuhedangxiaxizangshiji、youxizangtediandesimiaoguanlitixi,yindaozangchuanfojiaoyushehuizhuyishehuixiangshiyingjuyouzhongyaoyiyi。

AG真人12shijihou,suizhezangchuanfojiaoyizusiweizhongxindegejiaopaixiangjichuxian,sengnizheiyiyizongjiaoweizhiyedeshehuijiecengyezaizangzudiqubuduanfazhanzhuangda。zhishiyixiezhuyaosiyuanbuduankuojian,erzusichuangjianzhededizihezaichuandiziyouzaigedixingjiansimiao,congersimiaodeshuliangbuduanzengduo。shisimiaosuihouzaizangzudiquchengweiyizhongdutedeshehuiwenhuashiti。xizangzongjiaojituanheshisuguizuxiangjieheerxingcheng“zhengjiaoheyi”zhiduyihou,siyuanjituansuichengweixizangshehuideshangcengtongzhijieji,ersimiaozhujianchengweigedidezhengzhi、jingji、wenhuazhongxin。weichuanchengjiaoyihejinyibukongzhipangdadesengniduiwu,qianghuasiyuandezhengzhi、jingji、wenhuahesifadenggongneng,zangchuanfojiaobutongdezongpaigenjugezidetedianhechuantong,fazhanchubujinxiangtongdesimiaoneibuguanlifangshi。

AG真人yi、zangchuanfojiaochuantongsiyuanneibuguanlidebutongmoshi

(yi)gelupai

genjulishiziliaodeyanjiuxianzhuang,gelupaisiyuanneibujianquandezuzhijigouheyangedeguanlizhidu,shiwushidalaizaiqingwangchaohemenggurendefuchixiaqudexizangzhengjiaoheyizhidudelingdaoquanhoujianlibingzhubuwanshanqilaide。qizhongzangchuanfojiaogelupailiudasiyuanzuijuyoudaibiaoxinghuodianxingxing。agzhenrenjiuyilasadesandasiweili,duigelupaisiyuandechuantongguanlimoshizuoyiguina。lasasandasideguanlitizhihejigouzhuyaoyoucuoqin、zhacang、kangcunhemicunsigebumengoucheng。

1、cuoqin

duilasasandasieryan,“cuoqin”shisiyuanjigouzhongdeyijibumen,yeshisiyuandezuigaoquanlizhongxin,yi“lajihuiyi”dezuzhixingshilaijizhonghuoxingshisiyuanquanli,qizhongfengxing“chiba”fuzezhi,tongshisheli“cuoqinjiwa”、“cuoqinxieao”、“cuoqinwengze”sigebutongfenguandesengguanlaigongtongguanlizhenggesiyuandeneiwaizhengjiaoshiwu。 

AG真人“chiba”ji“fatai”huocheng“zongfatai”,shizhangguanquansiyiqiezongjiaohuodongheneiwaishiwudezongfuzeren,zhuyaozaidajingtangjuxingdezhongdafahuishangxianshizijidezhishangzongjiaoquanli。“chiba”zheiyisengguanshizaiquansizhuyaozhacangkanbuzhongtuijujuyouyuanbofoxuezhishi、degaowangzhongdegaosenglaidanren。renqimeiyouyangedeguiding,shenzhizailishishangchuxianyousiyuandahuofozhangqidanren“chiba”zhiweidexianxiang。biru,diershizhidiwushidalailamacengchurenzhebangsi“chiba”,lidaijiamuyanghuofochangrenlabulengsidechiba,dengdeng。 

AG真人cuoqinjiwa,zhuyaofuzeguanliquansidecaiwuhuohouqingongzuo,tazaisiyuanneichongdangdaguanjiadejiaose。yinci,danrenzheiyizhiweidesengguankanchengsiyuanneibujigouzhongdehouqinbuzhang。   

cuoqinxieao,shifuzezhixingsiyuanliguidingdegexiangqingguijielvdegaojizhifasengguan。quanmianfuzequansisengjijiuchagongzuo。tongshi,zheiyisengguanhaiyoutequanshenlisiyuansuoshubaixingdejiufenanjiandeng。 

AG真人cuoqinwengze,zhuyaofuzeguanliyisiyuandajingtangweizhongxinjuxingdegeleizongjiaohuodong。biru,congrichangxingsengzhongsongjingdengzongjiaoyishidaojubandaxingfahuidengzongjiaohuodong。 

2、zhacang

AG真人zhacangshisandasijigouzhongxiangduidulideerjibumen,shixing“kanbu”fuzezhi。“kanbu”yicizaizongjiaoshuyuzhongyoushifu、dashi、qinjiaoshidengduozhonghanyi。gezhacangdekanbuyeshilajihuiyidechengyuan。danrenzheiyisengguanzhiweidegaosengshisiyuanzhonggegezhacangdequanweizhuchiren,xiangdangyuhanchuanfojiaosiyuanzhongdefangzhanghuodaheshang。youyudanrenkanbuzheiyisengguanyingjubeiyuanbodefoxuezhishi,yinerbixushisiyuanhuozhacangzhongzuiyouxuewendedegaowangzhongdegaoseng,suoyizaisandasizhongdanren“kanbu”zheiyisengguandesengrendadoushihuodezongjiaogexixueweidegaosengdade。

gegui,zhuyaozhangguangegezhacangsengzhongdemingcehejilv。shijishang,“gegui”shifuzeweichisengtuanqingguijielvdesiyuanzhishi,lishishangsandasidegeguizaixunshisengjishi,changsuishenxiedaitiezhang,suoyiyebeichengwei“tiebanglama”。

AG真人wengze,shizhangguangegezhacangjingtangneidesongjinggongkehezongjiaoyiguidesengguan。youyu“wengze”changyaozaifahuishangzhidaosengzhongsongjinghuoqinzilingsongjingwen,yibanyoushuxigeleijingwenqieshengyinhongliangdesengrenlaidanrenzheiyisengguan。

guonie,shizhangguangegezhacangdesuoyoucaiwudesengguan。

3、kangcun

zheiyijigoushezaigegezhacangzhixiaerchengweizhacangdexiashudanwei。ruzhebangsi4gezhacangzhong,shuguomangheluosailinlianggezhacangguimozuida,yixiafenbiesheyou16gehe24gekangcun。qiguanlitizhizeleisiyuzhacang,caiqukanbufuzezhi。 

4、micun

“micun”shikangcundexiashudanwei,youshisandasijigouzhongzuijicengdezuzhidanwei。yekeyijiangqijiedingweisiyuanjigoutizhizhongdesijibumen。congguanlitizhishangkan,gege“micun”zuoweisiyuandejicengzuzhidanwei,qineibushixing“gegan”zerenzhi。jiarubasiyuanshizuoyigexiangduidulideshehuizuzhi,neimemeige“micun”jiushiqizhongchongdangshehuixibaodejiating,er“gegan”zeshifuzeguanlizheigejiatingdeyijiazhizhang。  

AG真人leisiyusandasidenggelupaidedaxingsiyuan,tongguoyishangxitongdezuzhijigouhejiaoweijianquandeguanlizhidu,zaixizanggegediquyoutiaobuwendiyunxingyongyouchengqianshangwanmingsengzhongdepangdazongjiaojigou。xuyaozhichudeshi,leisisandasizheiyangdechaodasiyuan,zaiqixiamianhaiyoushangbaizuoshusiguiqiguanli,yejiushiyutacunzaizhelishuguanxi。duiyuzheixiezhongxiaoxingsimiao,zetongguopaiqian“kanbu”dejizhi,zaixiashusiyuanshixing“kanbu”fuzezhi,congerzaigegesiyuanzhijianjianlilishuguanxi,zhijieagzhenrenyujiuxizangdezhengjiaoheyizhidu。chucizhiwai,duiyuyixiesishudezhuangyuan,yexuyaopaichusengrenjinxingguanli。

(er)sajiapai

AG真人sajiapaizaiyuandaifazhanchulejiaoweixitongdesiyuanguanlimoshi,jingguojibainiandeyanxuhefazhan,xizangminzhugaigedeshihou,yijingfazhanchuyitaowanbeidezhengjiaojiehedeguanlimoshi。xizangzhengjiaoheyizhidushizaiyuandaixingchengde,sajiasizuoweizheiyitizhixingchengchuqidezhengjiaozhongxin,yedaibiaolesajiapaiguanlisiyuandezhuyaomoshi。ju《sajiashixishi》zai,gongyuan1265nian,basibafanhuixizanghou,zaiyuanyoudejichushang,wanshanlesajiasideguanlizhidu,shezhilegezhongguanzhi,shisajiasidezhengjiaozhinengjinyibuqianghua。zheiyiguanlitizhiyeweihoulaigandanpozhangsuocankaohejicheng。zuoweisajiasidezuozhuhuofawang,yitaweizhongxinxingchengleyixia13zhongguanzhihesuicong,bianyuguanlisuoyouzhengjiaoshiwu。zheixieguanzhiyou:

suoben,guanliyinshideguan,shijikecanyuzhengjiaoguanli,zhiquanjiaoda。

senben,yisishiguanliwoshi、fuzhuangdeguanzhi。

queben,guanlifofayishidengdeguanzhi。

jieben,fuzejiedaidengdeguanyuanzhi。

AG真人yiben,guanliwenshu、dangandengdeguanzhi。

zuoben,guanlicaiwudeguanzhi。

AG真人taben,fuzeanpaijutiyinshideguanzhi。

zhenben,fuzexiangdaodengdeguanzhi。

danben,fuzeanpaifahui、yishidengdezuocideguanzhi。

jiaben,guanlibanqiandengdeguanzhi。

AG真人daben,fuzeguanlima、chedengdeguanyuan。

AG真人zuoben,guanlisiyuan、xikashengchudeguanzhi。

qiben,fuzebaoguanzangaodeguanzhi。

AG真人zheixiezhiweiqishibuzhixianyuqibiaomianchengwei,yinweitamenshizuozhudetieshenshi

wei,zaishijilvzhiguochengzhong,quanxianwangwangdayushijiguanzhi,shixiezhusajiazuozhuguanlizongjiaoshiwudezhuyaorenyuan。sajiasizaihoulaidefazhanzhong,lvjingfenlie、zhongzu,shisiyuandeguanlimoshiyefashengleyixiebianhua。

basibashiqi,sajiasiyijingfenweiledongyuan、xiyuanheshangyuansangebufen。geyuanguibutongdeshangshiguanli,bingqiefucongsiyuanzuozhudetongyiguanli,ersiyuanzuozhu,huochengweisajiafawangzeyousanyuanlunliudanren。daohoulai,sajiasiyouhuafenwei4gelarang,zhei4gelarangjiushixituolarang、lakanglarang、renqinganglarangyijidouquelarang。gelarangdouyouzijidezuozhu,bingyifuzixiangcheng,danrengyouzongdesajiasizuozhu。suizhelishidefazhan,houlaizhishengxiadouquelarangzheiyizhi。zaisajiasizuozhudi48daishi,douquelarangzheiyizhiyoufenweipengcuo、zhuomalianggepozhang,zuozhuyoulianggepozhangdezhangzilunliudanren。

AG真人xizangminzhugaigeshi,juchengsajiazuozhuyichuanzhidi82dai。sajiasifenweinan、beiliangsi。nansishuyuxianzongyuan,xiayouduiwazhacanghecannizhacang;beisiweimizongyuan,zhishepanzangyizhacang。sajiasizuozhu,jisajiafawangweinan、beiersizuigaolingxiuheguanliren。danjutiguanlizongjiaoshiwuzhewei“kanqin”。kanqinxuanjushi,zhuyaokanqixueshi,erbuzhongqizili,renqibuding,xierenhouchengwei“kansu”。siyuandezhongyaoxingzhengshiwu,zeyoukanqinhesajiazuobashanglianghoubaoqingsajiazuozhupishi。kanqinzhuchinanbeiliangsilianhejuxingdegezhongzongjiaoyishi。kanqinhezuobashisiyuancuoqinyijidezhiwu,qixiayounan、beiersideerjiguanliceng。

nansishiwujunyou“xiezhakanbu”zhuchi,sheyouwengze、jisuo、luoben、quchenba、chaguan、casiba、menguandengzhiwu。zaishangshurenyuanzhong,jisuokangfuzerenzhuyaozhizeshi,guanlisimiaowuzideshouzhigongzuo,qici,haiduisiyuandesiguijielvhesiyuanshenghuojinxingjianduheguanli。luobenjiushishangshideyisi,shinansigezhacangdedaoshi,yibanyou6ren。quchenbadezhizezhuyaofuzeweichisiyuandeqingguijielv,xiangdangyugegui。casibaxiangdangyuyinshijiandurenyuan。nansiyinlaiyuanquyubutongerbasengshefenwei16gebutongdequkuai,chengwei“shiliudalin”。“lin”shisajiasidesanjizuzhi。meigelinyouyiweifuzeren“linben”,shijianguangezisuoshulindejieguijielvdesengren。linbenyaoyounengwanchenggexianglaoyi、shuanfojing、yanshouqingguijielvdelaosengdanren。

AG真人zaiyimizongyuanweizhudesajiabeisi,sengrenrenshuxiangduinansijiaoshao。raoqiangbayizhifuzemizongyuandesuoyoushiwu。qitazhiwuyouqindianguan、jiacuoluoben、gexiuxingyuankanbu、wengze、zhacangqueben、quechenba、chaguan、casibadeng。qindianguanhejiacuobenluozonglansineigexiangshiwu,jiacuobenluoyoushimizongyuandejingangshangshi。beisizhacangquebendezhizeyunansijisuodezhizexiangtong。qitazhiwuyunansijibenyizhi。

(san)gajupai

gajupaixingchengyu12shiji,zhipaifanduo,you“sidabaxiao”zhicheng。gajupaideyixiezhipaiyouyuzailishishangxiongjuyifang,huocengyiduzhangwoxizangdifangzhizhengquaneryingxiangjiaoda,rupazhugajupai、caibagajuyijizhigonggajudeng。gajupaiyoudezhipaiyijingshichuanerbufucunzai,muqianrengcunxuerqieyingxiangpodadepaixiyougamagajuhezhigonggaju。gamagajupaishizangchuanfojiaozhongcaiquhuofozhuanshixiangchengdezuizao,yeshimuqianweizhichuanchengzuijiudeyipai。gamagajudehuofozhuanshizhidujianlihou,qitapaibiecaizhengxiangmofangcaiquzhuanshizhidu。

AG真人gajupaidesimiaoneibuguanlitizhiyuzangchuanfojiaoqitazongpaijibenxiangsi,sineiyouxiezhakanbu、wengze、gegui、luoben、jisuo(wa)、dibadengzhiwu。yusajiapaixiangsi,gajupaijiaoweixianzhudetezhengshisimiaoguanlifenliangtaobanzishixing,yishiyi“xiezhakanbu”weizhudexianzongxuejingyuan;lingyigeshiyi“zhuben”weizhudemizongxiuxingyuan,chengwei“zhukang”。xianzongyuanhemizongyuangeziyouyitaoguanlibanzi,ersiyuanzongdeshiwuzeyou“jiqiaokanbu”fuze。siyuancuoqinyijidezhiwuhaiyoucuoqinwengze、cuoqingegui、jisuodengzhiwu,yusajia、geludengpaiwudabie。

lishishang,gajupaisimiaodeguanlizaixingchengwendingjizhiqian,simiaozuozhudechuanchengchuxianguoliangzhongbutongdexingshi。yishiyixueyuanweizhudefuzi、shuzhi、xiongdidengxingshixiangchuan;ershiyihuofozhuanshidexingshichuanchengfazuo。gamagajupaizaozaigongyuan1283nian,zaidiershigamabagamabaxiyuanjihou,biankaishileqizhuanshixitong。zheishigaipaidesimiaochuanchengjizhiyededaolehenhaodejiejue。zaihoulaidefazhanzhong,gamagajushizhongweiraogamabazheiyizhuanshixitong,zongpaishilijiushengbushuai。shuyudiyizhongxingshidekejianyuzaoqidecaiba、barong、pazhu、dalong、zhigongdengpaidelishizhong。zaihoulaidefazhanzhong,yijiazuchuanchengxingshiweizhudepaibie,juedaduoshuyesuizhejiazushilidexueruohejiazujuesidengyuangu,luxushuaibaixiaqu,zhizhijuewang。erzhigonggajupaiyugongyuan17shijikaishicaiquhuofozhuanshidexingshi,laijiejueyinjurejiazushuaiweierdailaidesimiaochuanchengheguanliwenti。zheiyeshizhigonggajuyizhicunxuhechuanchengxiaqudeyigezhongyaoyuanyin。

AG真人zaizhigongsilishishang,chulecengyoukanqingurewahejuenongbadengzaifeichangshiqichurensiyuanzuozhuzuoweiguoduwai,yizhiyoujurejiazuchengyuandanrenzhuchi。daolediershisanrenzuozhugongjuepingcuohou,jurejiazuxuetongduanjue,kaishicaiyongsiyuanhuofozhuanshizhidu,bingxingchenglianggezhuanshixitong。diershierrenzuozhuhegongjuepingcuoweixiongdi,qiedoumeiyouzisi。yushizaidiershierrenzuozhuyuanjihou,gongjuepingcuoweiqixunzhaozhuanshilingtong,bingshizhichengweilediershisirenzuozhu,qixitongbeichengwei“qiecang”。gongjuepingcuoyuanjihou,shiyoudiershisirenzuozhuweiqixundezhuanshilingtong,houlaichengweizhigongsidiershiwurenzuozhu,qixitongchengwei“qiongcang”。lianggezhuanshixitongdehuofohuweishitu,lunliudanrensiyuanzuozhu。zhigongsigongyouliugelazhanghebagehuofozhuanshixitong,dansimiaozuozhuzhinengyoushangshulianggezhuanshixitongdanren。

AG真人er、zangchuanfojiaochuantongsimiaoneibuguanlimoshidetezhengfenxi

gelupaizailishishangjiquqitazongpaixiangguanjingyandejichushang,fazhanchuxitong、pangzadesiyuanneibuguanlitixi。gelupaisiyuanzaijutigongnengfangmianjichuancheng、yanxifojiaojiaoyihegonggu、qianghuazhengjiaoheyidefengjiannongnuzhiduweiyiti,keweishizangchuanfojiaosiyuanguanliyuyunzuodejidachengzhe。yingelupaiweizangchuanfojiaochuanglizuiwandeyizhizongpai,zaixizanglishishangyechuyuzhengjiaoheyizhidudefazhandingshengshiqi,suoyiqisiyuandeneibuguanlitizhiyejijuzhiduxing、dengjixinghedulixing。sajiasideguanlimoshijibenyanxilebasibashiqiquelidezhidu。youyusajiasifazhanzhongjinglilejicifenlieyubianqian,shisimiaoneibudeguanlitizhiyesuizhifashengleyixiebianhua。zongtishangkan,yuandaishiqisajiapaijianguanzongjiaoyushisudelishichuantong,yejizhengjiaoheyideduanni,zaisajiapaisimiaoguanlizhongliuxiadehenjijiaoweimingxian,yizhidaoxizangdeminzhugaigeqianxi,sajiasizuozhushizhongshisajiapaijiqishumindezuigaolingxiuhetongzhizhe。gajupaizuoweiyizhitixipangzadezongpai,zhipaizhongduo,qiedabufenyizailishishangxiaoshengniji,weinengzhangwozheifangmianyouxiaodeziliao,jinhourengyouhenduotianbudekongbai。jiuchubusihezhigongsidelishihexianzhuanglaifenxi,gajupaiyihuofoweizhushixingsiyuanneibuguanlidechuantongzuiweituchu。suishuogajupaizuixiancaiquhuofozhuanshizhidu,danzhigongpaicaiquzheiyixingshichuanchengsiyuanzuozhuzezaihenwancaichuxian。ruqiansuoshu,congqichudexueyuanweizhuchuanchengsiyuanzuozhudexingshidaohoulaidehuofoweizhu,zheishizhigongsilishifazhandezhuanzhedian,yeshizhigonggajuzheiyizongpaideyicunxuhefazhandeyigezhongyaoyinsu。zongtieryan,zangchuanfojiaosiyuandeneibuchuantongguanlimoshijuyouyixiajigemingxiantezheng:

shouxian,siyuansengrendengjisenyan,zhiwufengongmingque,guanlizizhuxingqiang,tixianchuzhengjiaohe

yizhiduxiasimiaoguanlidezhengquantexing。siyuanneibuguanliyibandouyouliangtaojigouzucheng,jizongjiaoshiwujigouhexingzhengjigou。yinzongpaidebutong,qixingshihemingchengyebujinxiangtong;zaitongyizongpainei,youyinsimiaoguimodaxiaoerjigoushezhiyouchabie。siyuandehuofo、putongsengnidouyouyangededengjizhidu,butongdejibiexiangshoudedaiyuhetequanguidingmingque。siyuandeneibuguanlihaishejiqishuxiaweishuzhongduodezhuangyuanhemuchang,congersiyuanhaijubeilezhengzhi、jingji、jiaoyu、sifadengzhineng。

AG真人qici,simiaochuantongneibuguanlizhonghuofodeweiwangshizhongyoushenhoudelishigenji。huofozhuanshixitongzuichudechanshengjiushiweijiejuezongpaifazhanqiantuhesimiaojichengrenwenti。zangchuanfojiaoqiaomiaodiyunyongfojiaode“sanshen”xueshuo,chuangliledutedehuofozhuanshiwenhua。qishi,zangchuanfojiaogedazongpaidehuofochuanshixitongchanshengbeihou,douyoudangshiteshudelishibeijing。heli、youxiaodijiejuechuanchengjiushizheiyizhiduchanshengdezhijieyuanyin。jibainianlai,huofoyichengweizangchuanfojiaochuanchengyufazhanzhongdeguanjianxingrenwu,shenzhikeyijuedingyigezongpaihesimiaodexingshuaichengbai。zaichuantongdesimiaoneibuguanlimoshizhong,huofodediweigengshibuketidai。huofozonglansimiaoneisuoyoudesengzhiderenmianquan,duisimiaodezhongdashijianhefazhanfangxiangyouzhewukezhengbiandejuedingquan。suizhezhengjiaoheyilishidefazhan,huofobujinshisimiaodezongjiao、zhengzhi、jingjidengshijishiwudezhangguanzhehedangdidezongjiaolingxiu,erqiehenduohuofohaishidangdidezuigaoxingzhengguanyuan。

disan,zuoweisiyuanerjibumende“zhacang”yongyoujiaodadedulixinghezizhuxing。henduoshihou,gelupaisiyuandezhacangxiangdangyuyizuodulidesimiao,qineibujubeiyigesimiaozhengchangyunxingdesuoyoutiaojian,rujingyuan、kanbu、sengren、jingxuezuzhiyijijingjishourudengkeyiwanquanduliyunxing。yixiezhacangneibudeshiwuwanquanyouzhacangkanbudandujueding,buxuyaoxiangsiyuanyijizuzhichengbao,ruzhacangdegegui、wengze、niecangdengjunyouzhacangkanburenming。yixiezhacanghaiyouzhuanshuzijidezhacangxika,ruzhebangsiguomangzhacang、abazhacang、selasijiezhacangdouzaidonggazongyougezidexikalingdi。zhacangkanbuyizhiyexiangyouhendazizhuquan,selasijie、mai、abasangezhacangshaoshukanbuderenqi,jujizaifenbiewei25nian、18nian、17nian、13nian,yixiezhiyouliangnian。《selasijiezhacangjiuyue》zhongjiyou: “danrenzhiwushinian,qimanjizixingciqu”。keyikanchu,zhacangkanbusuixujingguosiyuanheyuangashazhengfudetuijuherenming,danzhacangneibudeyuedingheguizerengshizhongyaojuedingyinsu。lasasandasidezhacangkanbuhaiyouchuxijiuxizanggashazhengfuzhongyaohuiyidezige。yidulidezhacangqishijiuxiangdangyuyixiezhong、xiaoxingsimiao。

zaici,siyuanzhacangxiayijidekangcun,zegenjusengrengezidejiguanlaizuzhi、qufen。zheixiekangcunnangkuolexizangjiyiwaidezangqu、menggudengdi,shenzhiguowaiyixiezangchuanfojiaoliuxingquyu;youdezejingquedaomuqiandexianyijiquyu。zheiyang,yifangmiangujidaobutongdiqusengrendeshenghuoxisuheyuyantezheng;lingyifangmianzechuyubianyuguanlihezuzhi。zheiyeshisiyuanneibuguanlitizhideyigejijurenxinghuadetezheng,tixianleduizangchuanfojiaosimiaoguanlidejichengyuwanshan。

san、jidianqishi

AG真人zangchuanfojiaosimiaochuantongdeneibuguanlimoshifazhandaojindaixizang,suiranduifojiaozheiyiwailaizongjiaodebentuhua、simiaodeguifanhuadengfangmianchanshenglezhongdadeyingxiang,zishenyecongwudaoyou,congmofangdaochuangxin,congwailaiwenhuadaobentuwenhua,zhujianfazhanchengweiyitaoxitong、wanzhengdesimiaoneibuguanlitizhi。danyouyuqibenshendanshengyuzhengjiaoheyidezhiduxia,daiyouyangededengjizhi,yijizhengzhi、jingjishangdeyapoxingheboxuexing,genbenjuedingquanshizhongzhangwozaishaoshushangcengsenglvheguanyuanshouzhong,chuyuzuidicengdeguangdasengzhongmeiyourenhezhengzhiquanlihejingjiquanlikeyan。xizangminzhugaigeyihou,kaichuanglezangchuanfojiaominzhuguanlidezhanxinmoshi,chedixiaomielezaizhengjiaoheyizhixiaxingchengdesimiaofengjiantequan。simiaominzhuguanlizheiyixinxingguanlimoshishixizangminzhugaigedeshenglichengguo,shishehuijinbudebiranxuanze。danshi,youyuzangchuanfojiaolingyuyizhichuyufanfenliedouzhengdeqianyan,shizhongmianlinzhedalaijituanliyongzongjiaojinxingdeyanzhongganraohepohuai,jiazhizongjiaozaishehuibiangehefazhanzhongdexiangduizhihouxing,simiaorengranzaixuduofangmiancunzaizheyushehuizhuyishehuibushiying、buxiediaodexianxiang。congqixingchenglishihetezhengshanglaikan,zaijichengbufenhelineirongdetongshi,rengyaoduichuantongneibuguanlimoshijinxingshenrudeshenshiyufansi。

shouxian,zaixinshidaitiaojianxia,zangchuanfojiaosimiaoyingjinyibuzhengbenqingyuan、fanpoguizhen,hongyangqichuanchengxinyangdeshouyaogongneng。zuoweijichenghehongyangzongjiaojiaoyidegenbenchangsuo,zangchuanfojiaosimiaozailishishangshizhongbanyanzhezongjiaogenjudidejiaose。wulunshigedazongpaixiangjijianlidemusi,haishizaifazhanhekuozhangguochengzhongluxujianzaoqilaideshusi,tamenshouxianshiyihongyanggezidejiaoyiweijiren。suoyousimiaozhongdousheyoukanbu、wengze、geguidengzhongyaozhiwu,zheixiedouzaijingxueguochengzhongchengdanzhebukehuoquedejiaose。yizuosimiaohuozhacangdekanbuwangwangshisengzhongdezhuyaojingshi,yebianchengweisengrenmendegenbenshangshi。kanbudejingxuesixiangheyanchuanshenjiaoduiqidizimenyingxiangzhongda。erwengzechengdanzhezhidaohejianduxuexijingdiandezeren,zaisimiaojuxingdegezhongjingxuehefoshihuodongzhongxiandegewaizhongyao。geguishiweichisiyuanqingguijielvdesengguan,zaibaozhangsimiaoxinyangchuanchengdechunjiexinghetongyixingshangfahuizhezhongyaozuoyong。ciwai,haiyouyixiezhongyaozhiwufenbuzaisimiaojingxuetizhiyunzuozhongdegegehuanjie。chengran,simiaozhongdeyixiezhiwuzaizhengjiaoheyizhiduxia,cengjingbaolanguozongjiaoshiwuyiwaideshisuzhengzhineirong,chengweituidongheweihuzheiyizhidudejichengren。anzhaojiegougongnengpaideguandian,shehuitixidegegebufenxianghuyicun、xianghuyingxiang、bicizhiyue,renheyibufendefazhanhebianhuadouhuiyingxiangdaoqitabufendebianhua,jineryingxiangzhenggetixi。zongjiaobeikanzuoshiyizhongshehuijigou,yizhongtixihualederenleixingweidexingshi,shizheigeshehuidezuchengbufen,juyouzijidegongneng,erqifahuidegongnengyushehuitixiyouzhemiqiedeguanlian。zangchuanfojiaosimiaodechuantonggongnengyejiuyudangshizhengjiaoheyideshehuishuxingyouzhejinmilianxi。dancongneixiezhiwuzaisimiaoshezhidechuzhongfenxi,yedoulibukaichuanchengzongjiaoxinyangzheiyishouyaorenwu。bokaizhengjiaoheyizheiyilishizhiduxiadeteshugongneng,zangchuanfojiaosimiaodeneibuguanlimoshifangnengtixianchuanchengxinyangdeshouyaoxing。

AG真人qici,jiaqianghechuangxinsimiaoneibuguanlishizhongzunxunzhengjiaofenlidegenbenyuanze。zhengjiaofenlishixiandaizhengzhixuedeyixiangjibenyuanze。chuantongdezangchuanfojiaosimiaoneibuguanlimoshijigoupangza,gongnengwanbei,qielingjiayushisushehui。erzaidangjinshehui,youliyushehuiguankongzhinei,bingyuequangansheshisushiwudechuantongdesimiaoneibuguanlimoshi,zaoyibufuheagzhenrenguoshehuizhuyishehuidegexiangzhidu,bingweibeixiandaizongjiaofazhandepubianguilv。yifazhiguoshiagzhenrenguoagzhenrenhezhiliguojiadeyixiangjibenfanglve,simiaozuoweizongjiaohuodongchangsuohewenwuyichandanwei,yinaruleguojiafalvtixizhongshishiyifaguanli。weijinyibuweihuxizangzongjiaolingyudehexiewending,xizangdangweizhengfuzuochulejiaqianghechuangxinsimiaoguanlidejueding,qianghuayifaguanlihezhengfuguanlisimiaodelidu。ersimiaozuoweizongjiaohuodongchangsuo,shizongjiaoxinyanghehuodongdeyanshengwu,yanxijiaoyi、chuanchengxinyangshiqizhuyaogongneng,yeshiqicunzaidezhuyaojiazhi。feichusimiaodefengjiantequan,bolisimiaoyushehuizhengzhi、jingji、jiaoyudengfangmiandeqianlian,shishehuigexiangshiyeshunlifazhandejibenbaozhang,yeshizangchuanfojiaojiankangfazhandeneizaiyaoqiu。

AG真人disan,zongjiejingyan,lizushiji,tansuojianlisimiaoguanlizhangxiaojizhi。chuantongdesimiaoneibuguanlimoshikeshangleshenshendezhiduheshidailuoyin。zangchuanfojiaosimiaochuantongdeneibuguanlimoshibijingcuishenghechengshuyuzhengjiaoheyizhiduxia,neibuyunzuozhongchuchutixianlejiejishehuiguyoudeshuxing。gonggongziyuandelongduanhexianmingdedengjixingzaichuantongguanlimoshixiabiaoxiandelinlijinzhi,daduoshuputongsengrenchuyubeiyazhihuoyifuyusimiaodezhuangtai,shenzhihenduosengrenshibeipoxuanzexuefaweizeng。putongsengzhongjihumeiyoubiaodayiyuandequanli,duisimiaodezhongdajuecehefazhanqiantudeyingxianggengwucongtanqi。simiaominzhugaigehou,guangdazhong、xiacengsengniyichengweisimiaodezhenzhengzhuren,simiaodezhongdajuecedouyouquantisengniminzhutaolunjueding。zheiyuchuantongdeyigerenyizhilaiguanlihejuedingsimiaoshiwuxingchengxianmingduibi,shisimiaoguanliyushehuifazhanziranjiegui,bingzouxiangxiandaihuadebiranjieguo。danshi,simiaodeneibuguanlirengxuxitonghua、guifanhua、zhiduhua,shisimiaojinyibuxiediaoheshehuifazhanyuwendingdeguanxi,xiaochubushiyingshehuidemouxiegongneng,fahuiqizaishehuifazhanzhongdejijiyinsu。yinci,zaijiaqianghechuangxinsimiaoguanliguochengzhong,jianlijianquanneibuguanlidegexiangzhiduxiandeyouweizhongyao。zaixiandaiguanlililunheshijianzhong,zhidushiguanlidejishi,yeshiguanliyouxudebaozhang。renheyixiangguanlihuodongdoubixuyaozaizhiducengmianshang“guiding”hexiediaozhufangmianshiyi,ruzuzhidejiagou、renyuandexingweiguifan、xiangguandegongzuochengxudeng。suoyi,mouzhongyiyishang,guanliwuyijiushi“zhidu”shishidequanguocheng。

tongshi,zaizhuruxiandaiguanlilinian、zhonggousimiaoneibuguanlimoshidejichushang,duichuantongmoshijinxingrenzhenyangqi,baocunbufenyuanyoudesimiaofengongyuchengwei,jiangzangchuanfojiaochuantongguanlizhihuihexiandaiguanlililunyoujijieheqilai,shijinkenengtixianzangchuanfojiaohouzhongerdutedelishiwenhuaneihan,duitansuojianlifuhedangxiashijiyuxizangtediandesimiaoguanlitixijuyouzhongyaoyiyi。

(wangluobianji: danzenglangda)

中共西藏自治区委员会党校 西藏自治区行政学院 保留一切文字图形权利 藏ICP备09000421
主办单位:AG真人_平台首页 制作单位: 中共西藏自治区委员会党校
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