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论藏传佛教信仰50年之变迁

发布日期: 2014-09-09    作者:达宝次仁   来源:AG真人_平台首页 2140

AG真人neirongtiyao: xizangzizhiquchenglihou,zangchuanfojiaofashenglemingxiandebianhua。zuizhongyaodebianhuajiushizongjiaoxinyangziyoudedaoluoshi,xinyangchengweigerensishijihaiyuanlezongjiaodechunjiexing;qicishizongjiaolajinyushisushenghuodejuli,danhualezangchuanfojiaodeshenshengxing,zengqianglezangchuanfojiaodeshisuxinghexiandaixing。renleishehuisuizhekexuedefazhan,guanyuchaozirandesixiangyibeishisudelunlisuoqudai,yijiyouchaozirancunzaideyouyiganshezhipeishijiandeguannianyibeilixingdejixiedeyinguoguannianqudai。zangchuanfojiao50nianlaidebianhuazhongtixianchuxinyangyulixingdeqiaomiaojiehe。

guanjianci: zangchuanfojiao;xinyangziyouzhengce;shisuhua;aiguozhuyichuantong

AG真人zangchuanfojiaoshixizanggezuqunzhongdezhuyaoxinyang,jujinyiyouyiqianduoniandelishi。ruguoshuoxizangdeminzhugaigefeichulezongjiaotequanhefengjianboxue,shixianlezhengjiaofenli。neime1965nian9yuexizangzizhiqudezhengshichengli,biaozhizhexizangminzuzongjiaogongzuodexindeqihang,zongjiaozhengceyuzangchuanfojiaogongzuoquyuchengshu,zhujianburuzhenggui。keyikendingdishuo,xizangzizhiqudanshenghou,shenghuozaixinxizangderenmincaizhenzhengxiangyoulezongjiaoxinyangziyou。zaidangdezongjiaoxinyangziyouzhengcexia,50nianlai,xizanggezuqunzhongchongfenxiangyouxinyangzangchuanfojiaohecanyugezhongzongjiaofoshihuodongdeziyou,xinyangyubuxinyangzongjiaochengweigongmingerensishi;zangchuanfojiaoxinyangxingshi、sengrenxuexiyushenghuoyijixintudesixiangguanniandengyezaixinxizangfazhanhekaifangdefenweixiafashenglebianhua,xinyangzhongtouchulixingdesisuoyugexin。

yi、 zongjiaoxinyangziyoudeyishixian

1966nian2yue24ri,xizangzizhiquzhidingle“guanyuguanchezhixingzongjiaozhengcederuoganjutiguiding”,guidingzhongshenlejianchiguanchezhixing“zhengzhitongyi,zhengjiaofenli”hedangdezongjiaoxinyangziyouzhengcedefangzhen,duixinjiaoqunzhongdezongjiaoxinyanghesimiaodezongjiaohuodongzuolexiangxishuoming,biaominglexinshengdezizhiquzhengfuguanchedangdezongjiaoxinyangziyouzhengcedetaiduyujuexin。zaixizangzheiyibeizongjiaolongzhaoqianniandegaoyuanshang,saxialezongjiaoxinyangziyouyishidezhongzi。

zaijiuxizangdifangfadianzhong,zhiyouzangchuanfojiaoshiweiyiyinggaibeixinfengbingtuixingde,qitarenhebutongleixingdezongjiaojunbudebeichongbaihexinyang。liru,jiuxizang《shiliufadian》disantiaoguiding: “anzhaodawangzhilingsuopaiqianzhidifangguanli……qimudejiweiyifushihexinfengfofaweizhu,bugaijiaopaizhiguan,bugaixintazong。”《shisanfadian》diyitiaozhi“jingmianguowanglv”yeyouleisiguiding: “fanrengongzhizhe……jinlixiaozhongyulidaidixi、fawangchuanchengweituixingfofadegongye,bugaitongpaizhiguan,buchongxinyijiao。”zheixiedoushuomingjiuxizangdifangfadianzaizongjiaoxinyangfangmianjuyoumingxiandeqiangpoxing。

duixinyangzangchuanfojiaodeputongqunzhonglaishuo,yemeiyouzhenzhengziyoukeyan。yishiqiangzhenglama,liruzhebangsizaiqizhuangyuanzhongguidingleyizhongmingjiao"zhacha"dezhidu,guiding3renchou1ren,lundaosheidetoushang,buguanyuanyiyufou,bixuxuefaweiseng。ershiyouxieyuanyidanglamaderen,youyuqicongshidezhiyezaishehuishangshoudaoqishi,rutiejiang、tufudeng,yinerbeijuzhimenwai。sanshiyouyudangshicunzaiqishifunvdexianxiang,nvxingbeishiweibujiezhiwu,xuduosiyuanjinzhifunvjinrumouxiediantang。ciwai,xinjiaoqunzhonghaiyaoweisiyuanfudangezhonggeyangdefanzhonglaoyi,zhifumingmufanduodewulachayi。zailasadaqiyuanfahuiqijian,zhebangsitiebanglamamenjieguanlasashiqu,fushuidezhongdanyeluodaolasajuminshenshang。tiebanglamamenchengjiliancai,tamenzhengshoulvshui、goushui、maoshui、jishui、huapenshui、xiangyanshui、biyanshui、shuijingshui、chitangshui,shenzhinvrenyouliangtiaobianziyeyaochoushui。“xiangkemenbixufunianjingshui,bingweizailinkazhouweijinxingchaobaifushui。”danshi,zi1959niankaishiduixizangzongjiaojinxingminzhugaige,lishiwunianhou,zaizizhiquzhengfuchenglishi,bujinquanmianguanchezhixingledangdezongjiaoxinyangziyouzhengce,erqiexiangguanfaguiyededaolefengfuyufazhan。

xizangzizhiquzhengfuchenglihou,zaichongfenkaolvdaolezongjiaoduixizangrenminshenghuozhongdeshenyuanyingxiang,zhidinglezhizaibaohuzhengchangdezongjiaohuodong,baohuzongjiaojiehefaquanyidezhengce。1966nian3yue,xizangzizhiqubanbule《simiaominzhuguanlizhangchengshixingfangan》,mingqueguiding: shixing“zhengzhitongyi、xinjiaoziyou、zhengjiaofenli”hegejiaopaizaizongjiaoshang“gexingqishi、hubuganshe”defangzhen,chongfenbaozhanglezhusisengnidegongminquanli,xinjiao、buxinjiaodegerenziyoutongyangdedaolezunzhonghebaohu,gejiaopaizaizhengzhishangbuzaishouqishi,yilvpingdeng,weigejiaopaideyiqiezhengchangdezongjiaohuodongkaizhanyingzaolelianghaodehuanjing,simiaodelishiwenwuhezongjiaowenhuadianjidedaoleyouxiaobaohu。wenhuafagemingqijianminzuzongjiaozhengcecengyiduweinengdedaozhengqueguanche,jixizangdezongjiaohezongjiaogongzuozaochenglejidapohuai。danyaokandao,zheichanghaojieshiquanguoxingde,shiniandongluanjizhenggeguojiaherenmindouzaochenglewufaguliangdesunshi,xizangzongjiaodangranyebukenengxingmian。danqilishijiaoxunjiqishenke,weihoulaigenghaodikaizhanzongjiaogongzuozhiminglefangxiang。

AG真人gaigekaifanghou,zongjiaoxinyangziyouzhengcezaixizangdedaoquanmian、shenrudeguanche。1980nian11yue24ri,《zhonggongxizangzizhiquweiyuanhuiguanyujinyibuquanmianguanchedangdezongjiaozhengcedezhishi》xiafa,kaishijinyibuluoshidangdezongjiaozhengce,zhongshenleshixingzongjiaoxinyangziyouzhengcedezhongyaoxing。1981nianxiafade《guanyuquanmianguanchedangdezongjiaoxinyangziyouzhengcehejiaqiangduizongjiaohuodongguanlideyijian》zaizhongshenleshangshuzhishidejichushang,zhichuyaojianchishixing《xianfa》suoguidingdezongjiaoxinyangziyouzhengce。qiangdiaozongjiaoxinyangziyoushizhongguoxianfafuyugongmindeyixiangjibenquanli。chu《xianfa》wai,zaiguojiade《xingfa》《minfatongze》《minzuquyuzizhifa》《bingyifa》《yiwujiaoyufa》《jiaoyufa》《renmindaibiaodahuixuanjufa》《cunminweiyuanhuizuzhifa》《laodongfa》《guanggaofa》dengfalvzhong,douyouguanyubaohugongminzongjiaoxinyangziyou,budeqishixinjiaoyubuxinzongjiaogongmindexiangyingtiaokuan。weijinyibubaozhanggongminzongjiaoxinyangziyou,weihuzongjiaohemuyushehuihexie,genjuguojia《zongjiaoshiwutiaoli》dejingshen,zizhiquzhidingchutaile《xizangzizhiquzangchuanfojiaoshiwutiaoli》。

xianfahefalvzhongyouguanbaohugongminzongjiaoxinyangziyouquanlideguidingzaixizangdedaorenzhendeguanchezhixing。muqian,xizangyougeleizongjiaohuodongchangsuo1780yuchu,sengni4.6wanduoren,gezhongzongjiaohuodongzhengchangjinxing,renmendexinyangdedaozunzhongyubaohu。

er、 yushehuizhuyishehuixiangshiyingzhongshixianshisuhua

xizangzizhiquchenglihou,danghezhengfuzairenzhenluoshizongjiaoxinyangziyouzhengcedejichushangtichujijiyindaozongjiaoyushehuizhuyishehuixiangshiying。1982nianzhonggongzhongyangxiangquandangyinfale《guanyuagzhenrenguoshehuizhuyishiqizongjiaowentidejibenguandianhejibenzhengce》(19haowen)zheiyizhongyaowenjian,suihou“xiangshiying”delunduanzhujianwanshan、chengshu。1993nian11yue7ri,jiangzemintongzhizaiquanguotongzhangongzuohuiyishangzhengshitichu“xiangshiying”lunduan,zhichu,zongjiaoyaoshihehuofuheshehuizhuyishehuidexuyao。yifangmian,danghezhengfujianchiguanchezongjiaoxinyangziyouzhengce;lingyifangmian,zongjiaojieyaozunjishoufa,jijitourushehuizhuyishehuiagzhenrenzhong。“xiangshiying”shiquanmiande,baokuozhengzhishang、jingjishanghesixiangwenhuashang,yijiruhewajuezongjiaojiaoyi,tebieshizongjiaodaodezhongdejijiyinsu,yishiyingshehuizhuyishehui。yizhiyilai,zangchuanfojiaoyushehuizhuyishehuixiangshiyingdegongzuobuduanqudexinjinzhan。zaizhengzhi、jingjihewenhuadengfangmiandexiangshiying,yijingjibenshixian。quanguozangchuanfojiaojiededaduoshusenglvhexinyangqunzhongshijianchizhongguogongchandangdelingdaoheweihushehuizhuyizhidude,bingjijitouruagzhenrenguoshehuizhuyijingjiagzhenrendangzhong。henduosiyuandingqijuxingaiguozhuyijiaoyu,zijuedizhipohuaizuguotongyi、minzutuanjiedesixiang。zaijingjifangmiandabufensiyuanyijingshixianleyisiyangsi,shenzhibanqileyanglaoyuan、gueryuandengfulijigou。zaiyudaoyixieziranzaihaishi,jijicanyujuanzhuhuodong。bujinjianqingguojiaherenmendefudan,haichengweicujinshehuituanjiedeyizhizhongyaoliliang。

yucitongshi,zaidanghezhengfudeyindaoxiazangchuanfojiaozishendeguannianhetizhidengyefashenglebianhua,gaigebushiyingshehuifazhandejiaoguijiaoyiyijiaqiangshisuhuajincheng。zhuzhangyushigejue、qingshishisushenghuoyiyi、qianghuafoguotiantangcunzai、dishixinshengshiwudengchenjiusixiangguannianyesuizhedangjinshehuidefazhanfashenggaibian。weiyouyushehuizhuyijingshenwenmingxiangshiying,yushehuizhuyihexinjiazhijieguicainengshizangchuanfojiaoxintuyushijujin,xinyangbenshencainengyoushengji。mouzhongyiyishang,shisuhuayeshiyizhongxiandaihuaguocheng。

(yi)guanlijigouyuzhidudebianqian

1965nianxizangzizhiquzhengfudansheng,biaozhizhezhengjiaoheyizhidudequanmianfeichu,shixingzhengjiaofenli,zongjiaobudeganshexingzheng、sifa、jiaoyudengfeizongjiaolingyu,bingquxiaolexizanggegesiyuanzhijiandeshangxialishuguanxi,meizuosiyuanneibucaiqudulizizhudeminzhuguanli。1966nian3yue5ri,xizangzizhiqurendachangweihuitaoluntongguolexinde《simiaominzhuguanlizhangchengshixingfangan》,zheiyiyingxiangshenyuandewenjian。taduizangchuanfojiaosimiaodezuzhi、jigouzhidudengfangfangmianmiandouzuolexiangxideguiding,duixiandaizangqusimiaozhiduyousuzaoxingdeyingxiang。gaizhangchengguidingzaisiyuanzhongjianliminzhuguanliweiyuanhui,duisiyuanjinxingminzhuguanli。shouxianzaiguanlizhidushangfeichuleguoqujuyoushangxialishuguanxidejiutizhi,ji“kanbufuzezhi”,shelilexindeminzhuguanlizhidu,jisiyuanminzhuguanliweiyuanhui;qici,zaisiyuanneibujingjianjigou,ruhebingsiyuanzhacang(xueyuan)hedingbiansengrenshuliang,yijizhiding18suiyixiabunengchujiaweisengnidezhengce,congerniuzhuanleguoqusiyuanwuxianzhifazhansengrendejumian;qisan,zaixindesiyuanjizhizhongbaoliuleguoqubijiaohelidezuzhixingshi,ruzaisiyuanliyiranbaoliulekanbu、wengzehegeguidengchuantongsengzhi,bingzaisiyuanguanliweiyuanhuidetongyilingdaoxiazaisiyuanjiaoyuhezongjiaoyiguifangmianfahuitamendezhuanyetezhanghuojijizuoyong。 keyishuo,zheiyixiliezhongdazhidubiangebujinweigegesiyuanjinkuaishiyingxinshengdezizhiqudaxialejianshidetizhijichu,erqieweizangchuanfojiaokaipilezaixinshijidefazhantujing。

AG真人xianrujinzangchuanfojiaosiyuanzaineibutizhishangfashengjudabiange,yishiguanli,jipaizhuganbudaosiyuandexingshijiaqiangsimiaodeguanli;ershiagzhenren,daliagzhenrensiyuandejichusheshi,shisanshiduoniangaigekaifangdechengguohuijizhiguangdasiyuan;sanshi,wanshan、jianquanshejizongjiaohesiyuandexiangguanfagui,jinkenengshisuoyouzongjiaoshiwuzuodaoyoufakeyi、youzhangkexun。xizangdangweihezhengfubashehuizhililinianyinrusimiaosengnijiaoyuguanliagzhenrenlingyu,basimiaozuoweijibendeshehuixibaoheshehuidanyuan,baguangdasengnizuoweiputonggongmin,zaiquanqusimiaoquanmianshishileshehuiguanlihegongwuagzhenrenquanfugai。shidezaisisengnidezuguoyishi、falvyishi、gongminyishibuduanzengqiang,shixianlezongjiaohemu,foshiheshun,simiaohexie。

(er)foxuejiaoyudebianhua

xindezhiduxiazangchuanfojiaojiaoyubianhuadezhuyaotedianshizengqiangshisuzhishidexuexi,shiyingshidaidefazhan。jiudefoxuejiaoyu,yishenghaoshouqiongjing,xuexi“wubudalun”weizhudexianmijinglun。jingguo50niandegexinyuyanbian,xianrujinsengrenmenchulexuexifojiaojingdianzhiwai,haiyaoxuexizhongguolishi、shijielishihexiandaikexuezhishi,xuexiguojiadezhengcefagui,lejieguojiadezhengzhijingjixingshiheguojidashi。1987niankaibandezhongguozangyuxigaojifoxueyuan,duipeiyanggaojihuofohesengrendefangshijinxinglelishixingdegaige,caiquxiandaiyuchuantongxiangjiehedebanfa。zhaoshoudexueyuanbulunjiaopai、minzu、diqu,renjiaodegaosenghuofoyelaizibutongdejiaopai、minzuhediqu。fojiaojiaoyucaiyonglexiandaidejiaoxuefangshi,zengjialeshisuzhishi。2011nianxizangfoxueyuanluochengyunxing,xizangfoxuejiaoyujinyibuquxiangduoyuanhua——sineixuexi、siwaixuexijifoxueyuandexuexidengfangshibingcun。chuantongzangchuanfojiaofoxuejiaoyubushanxuexi“xiaowuming”,yinqizhuyaoshishisudexuewen,youqishishixue。xianzaisengrenmenbujinxuexichuantongdeshisukemu,haiyaoxuexixiandaizhishi。shishibanshandashicengduizhashenlunbusiminguanhuifuzerenshuo: “lamabuguangyaonianhaojing,haiyaozhidaoxieguojiadashi,yaoguanxinzhengzhi。siyuankeyimaiyibudianshiji,duorangdajiakankanxinwen,zheiduizongjiaoyeyouyichu。”zhashenlunbusideqingnianlamanimasangbu,baitiankuxuefojing,yelixuexihanyuheyingyu,zhangwozang、han、ying3zhongyuyan。tashuo: “ruguoyiweizhuiqiuxiangshou,bujiaqiangkuxiu,neiqueshihuishizongjiaotuifei。danshi,bujieshouxiandaihua,chizaohuibeishehuitaotai。”weiletigaoxuexifojinghexiangguanzhishidexiaolv,shiyingshidaidefazhan,sengrenpubiangouzhilediannaoshebei。

(san)sengrenshenghuodebianhua

AG真人jishinianlai,sengrendeyishizhuxingyusurendejulilajin,shisushenghuozaihuofohelamadeshenghuozhongsuozhandebizhongzengda。jinru90niandai,sengrenshenghuofangshideshisusecaigengjianonghou。chuanzheyushenghuoyongpingengjiejinshisu,yixiehuofopingrizhichuanbianfu,zhiyouzaijuxingfoshihuodongshicaichuanjiasha。gezhongdianqijinrusiyuan,weisengrenmendeshenghuodailaileshubujindefangbian。shehuidexiandaihuashisengrendexuejinghexiuliandehuanjingfashenglejudabianhua,fengfulesengrendeyeyushenghuo,yetuokuanlelejieshisushehuidetujing。baozhi、shouluji、caidianjidiannaodengjinrusiyuanhou,shoudaosengrenpubianhuanying。

xizangjingjishehuifeisufazhan,renminwuzhishenghuoriyifengfu。shenghuoxiangduiqingpindesengrendeyishizhuxinghejichusheshidegaibianyeshilishifazhandebiranqushi。yinci,henduosiyuanyexinzengleyixiesigui,rusengrenbuzhunjinchaguan、fandian、wutinghedianyingyuan,chusiyaoqingjia,bunengsuibianzaisiwaiguoyedeng。zhengruyoudelamasuoshuo,renhexiangshouheshechi,duizongjiaodoushiyizhongzuinie。yinci,zaishisuhuadeshehuihuanjingzhong,yaojingshouzhuyouhuo,anyuzuoqingpinkuxingdesengren,chuleqianchengdexinyangzhiwai,haixuyaojuyouchaorendeyili。

(si)siyuangongnengdegaibian

AG真人xizangzizhiquchengliyihou,tebieshigaigekaifangyilai,siyuandechuantonggongnengzhujiangaibian。weiyuchengzhensiyuandezongjiaogongnengzhujianyoucongqiandejiangjingchuanfahewenhuajiaoyugongnengxiangrenwen(lvyou)gongnengzhuanbian。zongjiaojieqingyufahuidaiyoushisudesecai。youyushoudaoxiandaiwenmingdeqiangliechongji,siyuandelvyou、wenhuaheminsudenggongnengzhujianzengqiang。ru,dazhaosi、sandasijibudalagongdengmeinianjiedaishangwanyouke,yichengweilasalvyouyedezhongyaopinpai。

siyuanyechengweizhongyaodewenwubaohudanwei。zaozai1965nianzizhiquchenglizhishi,wenwuguanliweiyuanhuiyisuijidansheng,quedinglebudalagong、zhebangsi、sajiasi、selasideng22chuweiquanguohuozizhiqudezhongdianwenwubaohudanwei。50nianlaiguojiahezizhiqutoujuziduixizanggedasiyuanjinxingleduocixiushangongzuo,zongjiaohuodonghezongjiaowenwudedaobaohu,shizaizizhiquchengliyilaizhengqueguanchedangdezongjiaoxinyangziyouzhengcedejieguo。

san、 jichenghefayangaiguozhuyichuantong

AG真人congfojiaojiaoyilaijiang,aiguoaijiaoshishifayuchushifayuanrongdewenti。《dachengbenshengxindiguanjing》shuo: fomendiziyaoshangbao“sien”,qizhongbaokuo“guojiaen”he“sanbaoen”,baoguojiaenjiushiaiguo,baosanbaoenjiushiaijiao。zaimanzhangdelishifazhanguochengzhong,zangchuanfojiaoxingchengleyouliangdeaiguozhuyichuantong。zheizhongaiguozhuyideguangrongchuantonghechonggaojingshenzhijinyiranhuanfazheshengji,bingjilizhedangdaizangchuanfojiaojiedeyoushizhishi。

zangchuanfojiaolidaigaosengdade,weizhengquheweihuzuguotongyizuochulezhongyaodegongxian。13shijizhongyekeyishuoshizangchuanfojiaojieaiguozhuyichuantongxingchenghezaoqifazhandeshiqi。chuxianleyigeyisajiabanzhidahebasibabozhiweidaibiaodeaiguoaijiaoderenwuqunti,qizhongbaokuoyuanchaolidaidishihebenqin、pazhugajupaidelingxiujiangqujianzan、gajujiaopaidelidaihuofo、sajiajiaopaidedachengfawang、gelujiaopaidedacifawangyijichanhuawang、fujiaowang、chanjiaowang、hujiaowang、zanshanwang,yijihoulaidediwushidalailamahedisishibanshaneerdenidenggaosengdade。

AG真人dizhiwailaiqinlve,weihuguojiazhuquan,shizangchuanfojiaodeaiguozhuyichuantong。gongyuan16shijimo,putaoya、faguoheyingguozhiminzhuyizhezaiyindujianlilezhiminjudianzhihou,jiangzhiminchujiaoshenxiangxizang。zaizheizhongxingshixia,zangchuanfojiaojiedeaiguozhuyichuantongzhuyaobiaoxianzaifanduiwailaiqinlve、weihuzuguotongyihezhuquanwanzhengshang。zheishiqi,xianhouyongxianchuxuduoaiguodezangchuanfojiaojierenshi,jiaoyoudaibiaoxingderenwuyoudisi、wu、liu、qishibanshaneerdeni,diwu、qi、bashidalailama,yijishezhengwangdimuhutuketu、cemolinhutuketu、rezhenhutuketudengzhumingdeaiguohuofo。1888nianhe1904nianyingdiguozhuyizhefadongdeliangciwuzhuangqinlvexizangdezhanzheng,xizangsenglvminzhongdoujinxingleyingyongdikang,jiqinlvezheyichenzhongdedaji。

AG真人fanduifenlie,hanweizuguolingtuwanzheng,yeshizangchuanfojiaodeaiguozhuyichuantongzhiyi。cong19shijimozhi20shijichu,zangchuanfojiaojiedeaiguozhuyichuantongjinruxindefazhanshiqi。zaizheiyishiqi,jianchiweihuzuguotongyi,fanduineibufenliezuguodeshili,shizangchuanfojiaojierenshifayangaiguozhuyijingshendejizhongbiaoxian。qidaibiaorenwuyoudishisanshidalailama、dijiushibanshaneerdeni、diliushirezhenhuofo、gedahuofo、dishiyishipabalahutuketudengyidapizangchuanfojiaojiedeaiguorenshi。

xizangzizhiquchenglihou,zangchuanfojiaobuzaishifengjiannongnuzhujiejiliyongdegongju。zangchuanfojiaojieaiguorenshiyonghudangdelingdao,yonghushehuizhuyizhidu,chengweiaiguotongyizhanxiandezhongyaozuchengbufen。

shishibanshandashijijizanchenghezhuzhangzongjiaogaige,tamingquetichu“xianfajinsimiao”dezhuzhang,houlaishoudaozhongyangdekendinghecaina,chengweizhidaoxizangsimiaominzhugaigedezongfangzhen,duixizangsimiaodeminzhugaigechanshengleshenyuandeyingxiang。tazhimingzangchuanfojiaoruhequshiyingshehuizhuyishehuidefazhan,kaipilezangchuanfojiaoshisuhuayuxiandaihuadedaolu。zaishishibanshandashidehaozhaoxia,agzhenrenqugedasimiaotongguojiaqiangminzhuguanli,bujinnengjuxingzhengchangdezongjiaofoshihuodong,erqiezuzhiguangdasengnicongshilisuonengjideshengchanlaodong,xingbanyinshiagzhenrenye,jingyingyunshuagzhenrenyedeng,zoushangle“yisiyangsi”dejiankangfazhanmoshi。zangchuanfojiaoyushehuizhuyishehuixiangshiyingdegongzuobuduanqudexindejinzhan。quanguozangchuanfojiaojiededaduoshusenglvjianchizhongguogongchandangdelingdaoheweihushehuizhuyizhidu,bingjijitouruagzhenrenguoshehuizhuyijingjiagzhenrendangzhong。henduosiyuandingqijuxingaiguozhuyijiaoyu,zijuedizhipohuaizuguotongyi、minzutuanjiedesixiang。zaijingjifangmiandabufensiyuanyijingshixianyisiyangsi,shenzhibanqileyanglaoyuan、gueryuandengfulijigou。zaiyudaoyixieziranzaihaishi,jijicanyujuanzhuhuodong。bujinjianqingguojiaherenmendefudan,haichengweicujinshehuituanjiedeyizhizhongyaoliliang。zaishehuizhuyixiandaihuaagzhenrendeweidashiyezhong,qitazhongduozangchuanfojiaohuofohegaosengyefahuilejijidezuoyong,rujianchiaiguoaijiao,jijituidongzongjiaoyushehuizhuyishehuixiangshiyingdejiamuyanghuofo、zhukanghuofo,xiezhuzhengfujiejuebianjiehecaoshanjiufendegongtangcanghuofo,yijizaixizangjiaoyulingyuzuochuguogongxiandedonggahuofo、caidanxiaronghuofodeng。zaiweifayangzangchuanfojiaoaiguozhuyichuantongerzuochugongxiandezongjiaojierenshizhong,jiyouzangchuanfojiaodegaosengdade,yeyouputongdesengni。wulunhezhongbeijingyuxingshixia,tamenshizhongjianchiaiguozhuyijiandingxinnian,baaijiaxiang、aiminzu、aizongjiaoheaizuguotongyiqilai,tixianlezangchuanfojiaoaijiaoaiguodeyouliangchuantong。zaiweihuzuguotongyi,jiaqiangminzutuanjie,goujianshehuizhuyihexieshehuideweidashiyezhong,aiguozhuyichuantongjishidangdaizangchuanfojiaoguangdaxinjiaoqunzhongdeqiangdajingshenzhizhu,yeshizhonghuaminzuaiguozhuyichuantongdezhongyaozuchengbufen,jiangjinyibufajue、jichenghehongyang。

fofayuanbenshiyuanchurenjianbingyaoliyirenjiande,yingyishixianrenjianjingtuweijiren。zaoqidefojiaojingdian《zengyiahanjing》shuo: “zhufoshizun,jiechurenjian”,jieshilefotuozhongshirenjiandegenbenjingshen。《liuzutanjing》yeshuo: “fofazaishijian,bulishijianjue,lishimiputi,qiaruqiulujiao”,chanminglefofayushijianbukefenlideguanxi。xizangzizhiquchengli50nianli,zangchuanfojiaofashenglemingxiandebianhua。zuizhongyaodebianhuajiushizongjiaoxinyangchengweigerensishi,jihaiyuanlezongjiaodechunjiexing;qiciweilajinyushisushenghuodejuli,jidanhualezangchuanfojiaodeshenshengxing,zengqianglezangchuanfojiaodeshisuxinghexiandaixing。faguoshehuixuejiatuerganzhichu,xiandaihuadezhuyaotedianshixiangshisuhuadezhuanbian。zongjiaoshisuhuadebiaoxianshizongjiaoshenshenghuazuoyongdeshuaitui,zongjiaotigongyiyitixizuoyongdeshuaituiyijizongjiaoduirendeyueshulidejianruo。11renleishehuisuizhekexuedefazhan,guanyuchaozirandesixiangyibeishisudelunlisuoqudai,yijiyouchaozirancunzaideyouyiganshezhipeishijiandeguannianyibeilixingdejixiedeyinguoguannianqudai。50nianlaizangchuanfojiaoxinyangbianhuazhongtixiandeshisuhua、xiandaihuayeshixinyangyulixingdeqiaomiaojiehe。

zhushi:

AG真人zhourunnian: 《zhongguozangxue》1994niandi2qi;di32ye

AG真人tanhao、cuijing: 《zhongwaizhuanjia: xinjiuxizangduizongjiaoxinyangziyoubaohu“liangzhongtian”》;xinhuawang;2007-04-22

AG真人chenjinlong: 《lun1958-1960nianzhongguozongjiaozhidudeminzhugaige》;《shijiezongjiaoyanjiu》2002niandi3qi;di25ye

gazangjia: 《shijiezongjiaoyanjiu》;2007niandi2qi;di61ye

danbalamudeng: 《beijingdezhongguozangyuxigaojifoxueyuan》,《zhongguoxizang》,1992niandi3qi;di3ye

duyongbin: 《zangchuanfojiaoshisuhuaqingxiang》

zhuxiaoming: 《zangchuanfojiaoaiguozhuyijiaoyugongzuoduben》;zhongguozangxuechubanshe;2007nian5yue;di100ye;di125、126ye

duyongbin: 《zangchuanfojiaoshisuhuaqingxiang》

 

 

     

 

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