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西藏农牧区剩余劳动力转移的路径选择

发布日期: 2014-07-14    作者:王娜   来源:AG真人_平台首页 93

[guanjianci]nongmuqu;shengyulaodongli;zhuanyi;lujingxuanze

[zhai  yao]“sannong”wentidezhengjiezaiyunongyerenkouguosheng,nongminjiuyebuzu。xizangnongmuqushengyulaodonglizhuanyiwentijiyoutongquanguoyiyangdejipoxing,youyouzishendeteshuxing。suizhenongyeshengchanjishudejinbuhenongyeshengchanzongzhizaidiqushengchanzongzhizhongbizhongdexiajiang,xizangxuyaozhuanyidenongmuqushengyulaodonglibuduanzengjia,pangdadenongmuyerenkouyuyouxiandenongmuyeziyuanxingchengjianruimaodun,chengwei“sannong”wentidezhengjie。

AG真人the routes of transfer of surplus labor force in agricultural and pastoral areas of tibet

AG真人wang na

(party school of tibet autonomous region, lhasa, tibet 850000, china)

AG真人key words: agricultural and pastoral area, surplus labor force, transfer, routing

AG真人abstract: the crux of issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers is agricultural surplus population, farming herdsman underemployment.transfer of surplus labor force in agricultural and pastoral areas of tibet has both with the same urgency, but also has its own particularity.with the progress of agricultural technology and proportion of the gross output value of agriculture in gdp decline, the surplus labor force in agricultural and pastoral areas needs to transfer is increasing in tibet, the huge agricultural population and limited agricultural resources form a sharp contradiction, become to the crucial point of the problem.

AG真人nongmuyeshengyulaodonglideyigezhongyaojingjixuetezhengshibianjilaodongshengchanlvweiling,zheizhihouzaizengjiadenongmuyelaodonglijiweinongmuqushengyulaodongli。[1]chuantongnongmuyeshengyulaodonglijiaoduo,zaishengyulaodongliweishusongwanbizhiqian,nongmuyelaodongshengchanlvhennantigao,nongmuminshourujiangshizhongchuyutingzhizhuangtai,zhiyouzhenzhengjiejuelenongmuqushengyulaodonglidejiuyezhuanyiwenti,cainengbimianlaodongliziyuandelangfeiheqitashehuiwenti。

AG真人yi、xizangnongmuqushengyulaodonglijiqizhuanyixianzhuang

AG真人liuyisi(1954)shouxiantichude“bianjilaodongshengchanlvweilinghuofushudelaodongliweishengyulaodongli” [2]beixueshujieguangfanrenke;guoxibaodengren(1995)tichu“di-laobilvbiandong”shuo,ji: dangyigeguojia(huodiqu)nongyelaodongzherenjungengdimianjizhangqichengxiajiangqushishi,agzhenrenrenweigaiguo(huodiqu)cunzainongyeshengyulaodongli,[3]shicongrendiguanxidejiaoduchufajinxingjiedingde。

ju2010niandidiliuciquanguorenkoupuchashuju,xizangzongrenkouyida300.22wanren,qizhongnongyerenkou232.16wanren,zhanzongrenkoubizhong77.33%。[4]2010niandi,xizangnongcunlaodongli121.94wanren,nongyelaodongli91.55wanren,zhan75.08%;quanqushiyougengdimianji22.95wangongqing,renjun1.48mu,qiejuedaduoshugengdiweihandi,haibagao,chanliangdi。nongcunlaodonglianxingyehuafen,nonglinmuyuyelaodonglidebizhongguogao,nongmuqulaodonglixiangqitachanyezhuanyisuduhuanman,renjungengdimianjihuibuduanxiajiang。nongmuquzhuyaoyinongmuyeweijichu,erquanqudiyichanyedezengjiazhiduidiqushengchanzongzhidegongxianlvzhunianjiangdi,dandaduoshunongmuminquezhiliuzaidiyichanye,nongyelaodonglizhannongcunlaodonglibizhongzi1978niande98.50%xiajiangzhi2010niande75.08%,danyudiyichanyechanzhixiangbi,zhanyongleguoduodelaodongli,biaomingnongmuyeshengyulaodonglibuduanzengjia,laodonglizhuanyimianlinhendayali,jianbiao1 。 

biao1:                               xizangnongcunlaodongligoucheng                   danwei: wanren、%

nianfen

nongcunlaodongli

nongyelaodongli

nongyelaodonglizhannongcunlaodonglidebizhong

1978

1985

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010

80.86

87.83

90.85

100.83

115.07

119.36

121.94

79.65

85.02

86.01

90.12

88.28

91.19

91.55

98.50

96.80

94.67

89.38

76.72

76.40

75.08

数据来源:AG真人_平台首页

nongcunshengyulaodonglidedaliangcunzaiherenjunziyuandexiangduibuzu,birancushilaodongliwaichuliudongyihuanjienongcunjiaoweijinzhangderendiguanxi。jinnianlaixizangnongmuqushengyulaodonglidezhuanyiyoujiaodashuipingdetigao,nongmuminxiangchengzhenzhuanyishihenhuoyuede,rikazediqudehenduonongmuminzaiali、neiqudengdiqudemuqucongshijianzhu、roupidenggongzuo,zaianduodengdifangjingyingtianchaguandeng;chengjiaonongminjinchengwugongyelvjianbuxian。juxizangzizhiqudiercinongyepucha,2006nianmo,xizangnongcunlaodongliziyuan139wanren,qizhongnongcunwaichucongyelaodongli(likaihujisuozaidixiangzhenyiwaicongye6geyueyishangdelaodongli)14.03wanren,zhannongcunlaodongliziyuande10.09%;waichucongyelaodonglizhong,zaixiangwaixianneicongyedelaodonglizhan28.3%,zaixianwaidi(shi)neicongyedelaodonglizhan45.0%,zaidi(shi)waizizhiquneicongyedelaodonglizhan26.2%,zaiquwaicongyedelaodonglizhan0.5%;qizhongcongshidiyichanyedezhan4.0%,congshidierchanyedezhan41.4%,congshidisanchanyedezhan54.6%。[5]

er、xizangnongmuqushengyulaodonglizhuanyidebiyaoxing

nongmuqushengyulaodonglizhiliuzainongcun,jizhanyouxiandetudiziyuan,shidaozhinongmuminshourudixiadezhuyaoyuanyin。guanyulaodonglizaichanyejianliudonghepeizhi,peidi-kelakedinglibiaoming: suizhejingjidefazhan,diyichanyedejiuyebizhongbuduanjiangdi,dier、disanchanyedejiuyebizhongjiangzengjia,yijilaodonglihuiyoudiyichanyexiangdier、sanchanyezhuanyi。yinwei“zhizaoyedeshouyibinongyeduodeduo,ershangyedeshouyiyoubizhizaoyeduodeduo”[6],zhengsuowei“renwanggaochuzou”,butongchanyejiandeshouruchayi,biranhuidaozhilaodonglicongdishouruchanyexianggaoshouruchanyeliudong。

(yi)nongmuqushengyulaodonglidezhuanyiyouliyujingjijiegoudexiediao

AG真人xizanghepingjiefangyilai,tebieshigaigekaifangyilai,jingguo60niandefazhan,chanyejiegoubuduanyouhuashengji,diyichanyechanzhibizhongchixuxiajiang,dierchanyechanzhibizhonghuanmanzengzhang,disanchanyechanzhibizhongchixushangsheng,fazhanshitouqiangjing。chanyejiegouyou1978niande“yi、er、san”yanbianweimuqian“san、er、yi”degeju,rutu1。

AG真人tu1.xizang1978~2010niansancichanyechanzhigoucheng

数据来源:AG真人_平台首页

AG真人tu2.xizang1978~2010niansancichanyejiuyejiegou

数据来源:AG真人_平台首页

AG真人tongguoduixizangsancichanyejiegouhejiuyejiegoudeduibifenxi,keyikanchu: zaichanzhijiegoushang,xizangsihuyijingjinrudaogongyehuashehuihouqi,erjiuyejiegouyuanluohouyuchanzhijiegou,keyishuo,jiuyejiegoubichanzhijiegougengzhenshidifanyinglexizangjingjishehuidexianshiqingkuang。xizangjiuyejiegouyuchanyejiegoutuojie,chanyejiegoudebiandongjuyoumingxiandechaoqianxinghetiaoyuexing,jiuqiyuanyin,zaiyuxizangshishishangcunzaiyige“feidianxingdeshuangzhongeryuanjiegou”,jifeidianxingeryuanjingjijiegouhefeidianxingeryuanshehuijiegou,sunyongxianshengzaozai20shiji90niandaichubiantichuzheiyililunkuangjia,bingzuochujingpichanshu: agzhenrenrenweixizangdejingjishehuizi60niandaiyilaiyijingzaizongtishanggoujianchujiyoutesedeeryuanjiegou,jijuyoushehuiyunxingjizhideeryuanxing,youjuyoujingjijiegoudeeryuanxing,zheiyiteshuzhuangkuangkeweishuangzhongeryuanjiegou。danyuquanguojixibushengquxiangbi,xizangdeshuangzhongeryuanjiegoudeeryuanxingyouxianrandoushifeidianxingde。[7]zheijiugouchenglexizangfazhanyugaigedexianshijichu,zheizhongzhiyueheyingxiangjiangjiaoweijiuyuanhechenzhong,jiangzaijinhouhenzhangyiduanshijianneiyingxianghezhiyuexizangjingjidefazhanhezouxiang。

(er)nongmuqushengyulaodonglidezhuanyiyouliyunongmuminshouruzengjia

nongmuqushengyulaodonglidezhuanyishinonghushourulaiyuanduoyuanhua,xianjinshouruzhunianzengjia。nongmuminshourulaiyuankefenweigongzixingshouru、jiatingjingyingshouru、zhuanyixinghecaichanxingshouru。rutu3,nongmuminjiatingjingyingshourusuozhandebizhongsuiranhaihenda,danshilaodongzhebaochoushouru(gongzixingshouru)yijingfeichangzhongyao。1990~2010nian,jiatingjingyingxingshourucongzhannongmuminrenjunchunshourude93.1%xiajiangdao63.1%,xiajiangle30gebaifendian;ergongzixingshourucongzhannongmuminrenjunchunshourude0.2%tigaodao21.5%,tigaole21.3gebaifendian。 [8]nongmuminshouruchuxiangongxinhuadequshi,biaomingyoudaliangdenongmuqulaodongliyijingcongdiyichanyezhuanyidaodier、sanchanye,huozhezhengzaicongshijieduanxingdelaowushuchu,zaifeinongyelingyuhuodelexianjinshouru。yinci,shixiannongcunshengyulaodonglizhuanyiduituokuannongmuminshourudezengzhangkongjian,jiangfahuizhezhongyaodezuoyong。

AG真人tu3.xizangnongmuminrenjunchunshouruanshourulaiyuanfenlei

数据来源:AG真人_平台首页

AG真人(san)nongmuqushengyulaodonglizhuanyiyouliyunongmuyechanyebujuhejiegoudiaozheng

nongmuqushengyulaodonglicongnongmuquzhuanyidaochengzhen、congpianyuanluohoudiquzhuanyidaojiaofadadiqu、congshengtaihuanjingcuiruodiquzhuanyidaoshengtaihuanjinglianghaodiqu,qizhuanyideguochengjiangjiakuaixizangchengzhenhuaheshengtaihuadebufa。nongmuminrenjunchunshouruanshouruxingzhikehuafenweidiyichanyeshouru、dierchanyeshouru、disanchanyeshouruhefeishengchanxingshouru。congtu4keyikanchu: 1990nian,diyichanyeshouruzhannongmuminrenjunchunshourude79.6%,feinongchanyeshouruzhizhannongmuminrenjunchunshourude20.4%;2010nian,diyichanyeshouruzhannongmuminrenjunchunshourude51.4%,feinongchanyeshouruzhannongmuminrenjunchunshourude48.6%。[9]1990~2010nian,nongmuminrenjunchunshourudezengjiabufendeyiyunongmuqushengyulaodonglicongnongmuyezhongjietuochulai,congshifeinongchanyeerhuode,feinongshouruzhannongmuminrenjunchunshourudebizhongtigaole28.2gebaifendian。nongcunshengyulaodonglizhuanyidejieguoshiyuelaiyueduodelaodonglicongshifeinongchanye,duinongmuyechanyebujuhejiegoudiaozhengjuyoujiaoqiangdeyouhuazuoyong。

AG真人tu4.xizangnongmuminrenjunchunshouruanshouruxingzhifenlei

数据来源:AG真人_平台首页

AG真人san、xizangnongmuqushengyulaodonglizhuanyidezhiyueyinsuyuyuanyinfenxi

AG真人renkouliudongbushijiandandediliweizhidebianhua,xianshihuanjingduiqiyouguangfandeyingxiang,laodongliqianyiherenkouliudongyudangdishehui、jingjifazhanzhuangkuangjinmixianglian,yigediqudeshehuijingjifazhanshuiping、wenhuafangmiandechayiduiyujingjiagzhenren、laodongliliudongqianyi、shehuiwanglaidengjunyouyingxiang。xizangnongmuqushengyulaodonglizhuanyi,jiyoujingjiyinsuyeyouzhengzhiyinsu,jiyoudilihuanjingyinsuyeyouzhidufangmiandeyinsuyijilaodonglizishendeyuanyin,zheixieyinsucuozongfuza,juyouhendadeteshuxing。

(yi)jingjijiegouxianzhiduilaodonglideladonglidu

eryuanjiegoushizhiyigeguojiahuodiqu,xiandaihuadeshengchanfangshiyuchuantongdezijizizudeluohoushengchanfangshibingcundexianxiang。agzhenrenguoxibudiquzhengchuyuzheiyangdeeryuanjiegouzhizhong。raner,xizanghaibunengguirucilie,xizangdechanyejiegoushiyichuantongnongmuyeweizhutideyiyuanjiegou,youshibumingxian,lieshiquexiangdangpubian,suoyi,xizangchanyejiegouhaibushieryuanjiegou,zhishaobushidianxingdeeryuanjiegou。xizangdejingjijiegouqueshifeidianxingeryuanjiegou,zaihenduo“qianruxing”xiandaichanyebumenzhong,chuantongnongyebumenhe“qianruxing”xiandaigongyebumenjingjilianxide“jueyuandu”hengao,chanyeguanlianduhendi,xianzhilechengshigongyebumenduinongcunshengyulaodonglideladonglidu。tu1hetu2zhongdechanyejiegouhejiuyejiegoushibuxiangduichengde,daliangdelaodonglirengzaidiyichanyeneijiuye。

(er)jiuyejinengjiaochaxianzhilaodonglizhuanyiguimo

AG真人muqian,waichujiuyedenongmuqushengyulaodonglidabufenwenhuashuipingbugao,meiyouzhuanmenjineng,bushiyingchengzhenjingjifazhanhejiagongzhizaoyeduilaodonglisuzhideyaoqiu,nanyizhaodaoshiyidegongzuo,gengnanyixiangxinxingchanyezhuanyi,yewufashengrenjishuxinggongzhong。suirandabufennongmuqulaodongliyoucanyufeinongchanyedeqianglieyuanwang,xiwangtongguogezhonggongcheng、xiangmuzengjiashouru,danyouyulaodongjinengjiaocha,zaicanyugongchengagzhenrenzhongdingduochongdanglaodongmijixingdejiaose,riyijiliedeshichangjingzhengwuxingzhongxianzhileduijinengzhangwochengdubugaodexizangnongcunlaodonglicanyuqizhong。youyuquefajinengyuzhuanzhang,xuduonongcunlaodongliduicongshifeinonglaodong、duiwaichumoushengsuoyudaodegezhongwentiyemeiyouzugoudexinlichengshounengli。yinci,nongcunshengyulaodongliyaoshixianzhuanyi,xuyaotigonggengduodejinengpeixunlaikefuwenhua、nianlingyijixinlidengfangmiandexianzhihezhiyue。

AG真人(san)chengzhenhuashuipingdizuailaodonglizhuanyisudu

makesizhichu: “yiqiefadade、yishangpinjiaohuanweimeijiedefengongdejichu,doushichengxiangdefenli。keyishuo,shehuidequanbujingjishidoukeyigaikuoweizheizhongduilideyundong。”[10]yejiushishuo,zhiyouzaichengzhen,caihuichanshengfuzadefengonghejiaohuan,chanyecaikenengduoxiangfazhan,ernongcundeshengchanhuodongshizijizizude,fengongshijiandande,chanyezhinengdandiaofazhan。gongyehuashijiakuaijingjifazhanhetigaochengzhenhuashuipingdezhudaoliliang,gongyehuashuipingdegaodizhijieyingxiangzhegongyehua、chengzhenhuadeliangxinghudong。ermuqianxizanggongyehuashuipinghaihendi,chanyejiegoubuheli,dishuipingdejiagonggongyezengzhangjiaokuai,ergaojiagongdu、gaofujiazhidechanyefazhanbuzu;chanyejizhongdudi,qiyezuzhiguimoxiaoerfensan,nanyidadaoguimoxiaoyi;gongyeshengchanjishuxiangduiluohou,kejijinbuxiangduihuanman,gaoxinjishuchanpinshao、chuangxinnenglibuqiang。gongyehuashuipingdizuailegongyehua、chengzhenhuadehudongfazhan。xiangduifadadechanyehexiangduichongzudejiuyeshichengzhenhuadejichu,nongmuminjinruchengzhenzuijibendetiaojianjiushinenggoujiuye、zaichengzhenyouwendingdeshouru。xizangyindiyuguangkuo、renkouxishao、fenbuxishuqiebupingheng、gongyehuashuipingdi,daozhichengzhenhuashuipingdi,shichangxiaxiaofensan,jinernanyijizhongshengchanyaosuerduilaodongliliudongchanshengbuliyingxiang。

si、xizangnongmuqushengyulaodonglizhuanyidelujingxuanze

congbenzhishangshuo,nongyelaodonglizhuanyishishehuizonglaodonglizaisandachanyejiandezhongxinpeizhi,fashengzheizhongbianhuadejichushishengchanlishuipingdetigao,shiyouziranjingjixiangshangpinjingjifazhandekeguanguilvsuojuedingde。xizangnongmuqushengyulaodonglizhuanyisuochudexianshihuanjinghezhiyueyinsujuedingleqizhuanyishiyigefuzadexitonggongcheng,zhiyoucongshijichufa,yijingjijiegoudiaozhengweizhongdian、chanyeagzhenrenweizhicheng、jiaqiangnongmuminzhiyejinengpeixunweigenben,jiadazhengcehezijinzhichilidu,tongguoxizangshidugongyehua、chengzhenhuaheagzhenrenshehuizhuyixinnongcundengtujingcainengcujinnongmuqushengyulaodonglidewendingyouxuzhuanyi。

(yi)tuijinnongyechanyehuayunongyejiegoudiaozheng 

AG真人nongmuyeshixizangdejichuchanye,zheiyuzhanzongrenkou80%yishangdenongmumindeyishizhuxingmibukefen,erzuoweixizangjichuchanyedechuantongnongmuyequefeichangcuiruo,qiyuanyinbingbuzainongmuyebenshen,erzaiyueliedezirantiaojian,nongmuyediyuziranzaihaidenenglihaichuzaijidideshuipingshang。“tishengyichan”bixucongkejirushou,zhuanbianjingjifazhanfangshi,bixuduichuantongnongyejinxinggaizao,yikaonongyekejijinbutuidongchuantongnongyexiangxiandainongyezhuanbian。nongmuminrenkoushuliangda,yaobashuliangjudadenongcunshengyulaodonglideyibufenjinkenengdiwendingzainongyeneibu,jiubixuchongfenwajuenongyeziyuanneibuqianli,yishichangweidaoxiang,jiasutuijinnongyechanyehuaagzhenren,weiraonongcunziyuandezonghekaifa,shishiyouzhixiaomai、youcai、qingke、shucaijidi、tesenongmuyekaifa、zhongyangyeliangzhonggongchengdeng,tigaonongmuyezongheshengchannengli,peiyuhexingchengteseyoushizhudaochanyebingdaidongquyujingjibuju,tongguolongtouqiyeguimohua、zhuanyehuashengchan,changongxiaoyitihuadenongyejingyinghezuzhimoshi,dazaoxizanggaoyuantesenongchanpinjidi,yindaonongcunshengyulaodonglijiuye。

AG真人(er)jiakuaixiangzhenqiyefazhan,daidonglaodongli“jiudizhuanyi”

AG真人jiuxizangshijiqingkuangeryan,“jiudizhuanyi”ji“litubulixiang”dezhuanyicelveshinongmuqushengyulaodonglizhuanyidezhuyaotujing。xiangzhenqiyeshinongcunjingjidezhongyaozhizhu,duicongyerenyuandewenhuashuipinghejinengyaoqiubugao,qiejiuyedidianjiuzaijiamenkou,wuxuzhangqibeijinglixiang,weinongcunshengyulaodonglizhuanyitigonglezhuduofangbian,yincishilaodonglijiudizhuanyidezhongyaochulu。youyuagzhenrenquxiangzhenqiyedefazhan,keyijiejianneidixiangzhenqiyefazhandechenggongjingyan,banongcunshengyulaodonglizhuyaozhuanxiangxiangzhenqiye。[11]xiangzhenqiyedefazhan,youqishinongchuchanpinjiagong、agzhenrendenglaodongmijixingqiye,keyigengduogengguangfandixinadapilaodonglijiuye,tongshi,youyuchanyejiandeguanlian,nengyoulididaidongyuanliaojidiagzhenren,jianjiedaidongdapilaodonglicongshinongchanpinyuanliaodezhongzhiheyangzhi,tigaonongchuchanpinfujiazhizengjianongmuminshouru,shifazhangaoyuantesenongchanpinjididejichu。xiangzhenqiyeyeshixiaochengzhendejichu,daidongxiaochengzhener、sanchanyedejizhong,bingduijiuyechanshengjijideliandaixiaoying。 

(san)zhelijiaqiangnongmuminzhiyejinengpeixun

jiaqiangnongmuminzhiyejinengpeixun,shicujinnongmuqushengyulaodonglizhuanyidezhongyaobaozhang。dangqianlaodongligongjiyushichangxuqiujibuduicheng,shichangduilaodonglidexuqiuzhengzaiyoudanchundetilixingxiangjinengxinghezonghexingzhuanbian,eragzhenrenqunongmuminlaodonglizhongdazhongzhuanwenhuachengdudehenshao,dabufenshichuzhongjichuzhongyixiawenhuachengdu,erqiedaduoshumeiyoujieshouguozhuanyejishupeixun,yinci,bixuxiadaliqi,bapeixunzuoweiyindaonongmuqushengyulaodonglizhuanyijiuyedezhongyaohuanjie,duiwaichuwugongrenyuanjinxingyouzhenduixingdepeixun,zhongdiantuchusanfangmianneirong: shouxianyaozengjiaduinongcunjiaoyudetouzi,pujijiunianyiwujiaoyu,tigaonongcunlaolidejibenwenhuasuzhi;ershizhiyejinengpeixun。zhenduixingdizhidingnongmuminjiuyepeixunzhengce,qufenbutongxingye、butonggongzhong、butonggangwei,duiwaichujiuyedenongmuqulaodonglijinxingjibenjinenghejishucaozuoguichengdepeixun;sanshizhengce、falvfaguizhishipeixun。bangzhuwaichujiuyedenongmuqushengyulaodonglijishilejieyouguanwugongjingshang、touzichuangyeyijihuixiangchuangyedengfangmiandezhengceheguiding,shuxixiangguanfalvfagui,zengqiangzunjishoufayishi,baohuzishenhefaquanyi。

AG真人(si)disanchanyefazhanyuxiaochengzhenagzhenrenjieheqilai

AG真人shishichengzhenhuazhanlvebixuzheyanyunongyechanyebujuhejiegoudiaozheng,yinongyeweijichudalifazhannongcunfeinongchanye,tongguonongcundegongyehuaxingchenghepeiyuchengzhenhuadejichu,helidiaozhengjingjijiegou,agzhenrenyipitouzixiao、jianxiaokuai、wuwuran、ziyuankezaisheng、bingnengrongnadalianglaodonglidexinxingchanye,yidadaojifazhanjingji,youqidongshichang、kuodajiuyedemude。zaidiyichanyexiangduiluohou,dierchanyehaihenboruodeqingkuangxia,junhengfazhanzhilujiangshifenmanzhang,tongguojihuadefuchi、youdaohezuzhi,qingxiefazhandisanchanyeyouwanghuodekuayuefazhan。gulinongmuminjinchengwugong,yindaohezuzhinongmuminkaizhanduozhongjingying,kaizhanlvyouagzhenren,fazhanxiangcunlvyoudeng,peiyulaowujingji。xizangjubeishijiejilvyouziyuan,jubeidazaoshijiejilvyoumudedidetiaojian,yongyoubaoguidelvyouziyuan,xianzaizhuyaoshizairuanjianshangxiagongfu,tishengpinwei,gaohaolvyoujingqukaifajiazhipuchahexinxipingtaiagzhenren,gaishanlvyousheshihemuqianboruodelvyoujiedainengli,tongshi,yaogenshangdaoyouzixunagzhenren,peixundangdibaixingcanyudaozangjiale、maoniutuoyundui、xiangdao、sijidengagzhenrenxingxingyezhonglai,ranggengduodenongmuqushengyulaodonglicanyudaoxiangcunlvyouxingyezhongqu。

nongyezhongchuxianshengyulaodonglibingxiangfeinongchanyezhuanyi,conggenbenshanglaishuo,shishehuijingjifazhanzhongchanyejiegoudebianhuazailaodonglijiuyelingyuzhongzuoyongdejieguo。nongyeshengyulaodonglinengfoushixianzhuanyi,zhijiejuedingyushehuijingjidadaoleshenmeyangdeshuiping,congershifouyaoqiulaodonglijiuyejiegoudaodayigexiangyingdegaodu。suizheshehuijingjifazhanshuipingdetigao,laodonglizaiyi、er、sanchanyezhongdefenbujiangchengxianchuyouzhengsanjiaoxingxiangtongxing,zaixiangdaosanjiaoxingjiegoubianhua。zheiyipubiandeguilvshuoming,yaoshixianjianshaonongyelaodongli、jiangdaliangdenongyeshengyulaodonglizhuanyidaogongyeheagzhenrenyezhongjiuyedemubiao,jiubixunulicujinzhengtijingjishuipingdefazhan。

[cankaowenxian]

AG真人[1]guojiatongjijunongdiaozongduishequchu.guanyunongcunshengyulaodonglidedingliangfenxi[j].guojiaxingzhengxueyuanxuebao,2002(2).

AG真人[2](mei)weilian·aseliuyisi.eryuanjingjilun[m].beijing:shoudoujingjimaoyidaxuechubanshe,1989. 

[3]郭熙保.农业发展论[M].武汉: 武汉大学出版社,1995.
AG真人 [4]西藏自治区第六次全国人口普查领导小组办公室,西藏自治区统计局编.2010年西藏自治区第六次全国人口普查主要数据[M].2011年8月.

[5]xizangzizhiqudiercinongyepuchalingdaoxiaozubangongshi,xizangzizhiqutongjiju,guojiatongjijuxizangdiaochazongdui.xizangzizhiqudiercinongyepuchazhuyaoshujugongbao[eb/ol].2008nian12yue30ri.http://wenku.baidu.com/view/621f286f1eb91a37f1115c65.html

[6]chenxiushan,zhangkeyun.quyujingjililun[m].beijing: shangwuyinshuguan,2003.

[7]sunyong.xizang: feidianxingeryuanjiegouxiadefazhangaige[m].beijing: zhongguozangxuechubanshe,2000.

[8] [9]xizangzizhiqutongjiju,guojiatongjijuxizangdiaochazongduibian.xizangtongjinianjian(2011)[z].beijing: zhongguotongjichubanshe,2011.

AG真人[10]yuyungui,wendeming,jinbayangpei.xizangchanyelun[m].beijing:zhongguozangxuechubanshe,1994.

[11]duoqing.qianxiagzhenrenqunongcunshengyulaodonglidezhuanyi[j].xizangyanjiu,2002(2).

中共西藏自治区委员会党校 西藏自治区行政学院 保留一切文字图形权利 藏ICP备09000421
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